Courses

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Course Descriptions

The list below includes descriptions of all undergraduate and graduate courses offered by the Department of Philosophy, though some courses may be taught more often than others. Descriptions for special topics seminars are updated each semester.

Visit the undergraduate and graduate pages for course requirements for specific programs. For up-to-date information on course offerings, schedules, room locations and registration, please visit the Student Information System (SIS).

Undergraduate Courses

PHIL AC Ac Philosophy. Tufts equivalency awarded based upon SAT or International Diploma exam/score.  Please see Tufts Exam Equivalency Chart in Bulletin for detailed information.

PHIL 0002 Introduction To Philosophy. The major types of philosophical thought and the central problems of philosophy are presented through study of some classic texts of the great philosophers. Offered each term. (May be used to satisfy the second half of the college writing requirement by students with credit for ENG 1.) Formerly PHIL 0001. Students may not receive credit for both PHIL 0001 and PHIL 0002.

PHIL 0003 Language And Mind. (Cross-listed as LING 3).  Implications of recent work on language for our understanding of the human mind: consciousness, human intention, paradoxes, computers as models of mind, rules and conventions, metaphor. Readings drawn from classic and contemporary texts.

PHIL 0006 Reasoning And Critical Thinking. Introduction to the analysis of arguments as they occur in everyday legal, moral, and academic contexts. Topics include identifying fallacies in reasoning, elementary logical principles, standards of evidence, and constructing and evaluating arguments. Suitable for those who wish to develop their reasoning skills without taking a course in formal logic. Cannot be taken for credit if student has already taken PHIL 33.

PHIL 0007 Introduction To Philosophy. The major types of philosophical thought and the central problems of philosophy are presented through study of some classic texts of the great philosophers. Offered online. Students may not receive credit for both PHIL 0001 and PHIL 0002 or PHIL 0002 and PHIL 0007.

PHIL 0011 Biology And Humanity. How the biological sciences interact with images of human nature.  What we take to be our concept of humanity must be revised in the face of scientific discoveries about our evolutionary history and biological makeup.  Discussion of misconceptions of evolution, genetics, and molecular biology as well as the relevance of science and its consequences for ethics and our human image.

PHIL 0015 Introduction To Linguistics. (Cross-listed as PSY 64 and LING 15.) How humans encode language in their brains, so that they can produce and understand an unlimited variety of utterances in context. Language and other forms of communication; how children acquire language; biological basis of language; the structure of  language -- phonology (sound structure), syntax (grammatical structure), and semantics (meaning).

PHIL 0016 Philosophy Of Religion. (Cross-listed as REL 6.) Introduction to the philosophical analysis of major religious concepts, such as God, human nature, freedom of will, immortality, and the problem of evil through a study of representative types of religious philosophies.

PHIL 0020 An Introduction to Civic Studies: Theories for a Better World. (Cross-listed as CVS 20 and PS 20) Exploration of contrasting conceptions of active citizenship with roots in philosophy and practical experimentation. Course aims better to understand how people engage with their communities and develop strategies for building a better world. Emphasis on the perspective of individuals and small groups: what we should do to create, nourish, and sustain good communities. Consideration of values (ethics), facts (empirical evidence), and strategies. Readings from historical and contemporary sources. No prerequisites.

PHIL 0024 Introduction To Ethics. (Cross-listed with CVS 14) An introduction to moral judgment--and the reasoning it is based on--by a detailed study of current issues such as abortion, vegetarianism, and responsibility for war crimes, and the application to such problems of ethical theories, such as egoism, utilitarianism, and the doctrine of rights. Spring.

PHIL 0025 Food Ethics. (Cross-listed with CVS 16) A philosophical examination of ethical questions that arise in the production, distribution, and consumption of food: obligations to victims of famine; obligation to future generations; just access to food; food and environmental ethics; animal rights.

PHIL 0033 Logic. (Cross-listed as LING 33).  An introduction to fundamental concepts of modern formal logic, including sentence logic, quantification theory, and identity. Emphasis on the application of formal methods to reasoning in philosophy, mathematics, and everyday affairs. Please note: only one of PHIL, LING 33 and 103 may be taken for credit.

PHIL 0035 Reality and Subjectivity. Introductory course on philosophical issues of realism and anti-realism. Topics may include ethical relativism, personal identity over time, the reality of causation, the metaphysical status of color. Readings from early modern and contemporary philosophers such as Locke, Hume, Parfit, and Lewis.

PHIL 0037 Evidence. Introduction to inductive reasoning and scientific method. Evidence in science vs. evidence in the law. Philosophical problems with induction and proposed solutions. Different concepts of probability and their relevance to theories of induction. Rudiments of statistical evidence and decisions under risk and uncertainty.

PHIL 0038 Rational Choice. Introduction to the systematic development of decision theory, game theory, and social choice theory. Emphasizes their application to problems in philosophy and the social sciences, and examines their foundations in the philosophical analysis of rationality.

PHIL 0039 Knowing And Being. Introduction to epistemology and metaphysics. Typical topics: truth and relativism, what really exists, what we can know, space and time, existence in fiction, the essence of things, God.

PHIL 0040 Paradoxes and Dilemmas. (Cross-listed as CLS 40) Introduction to fundamental themes in logic, epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics. Paradoxes and dilemmas are frequently associated with moments of crisis and groundbreaking developments in the history of philosophy, as they lead to questions about basic presuppositions. Analysis of famous cases in the history of Western thought from Antiquity to the present including Meno’s paradox (knowledge), Zeno’s paradoxes (space, time, motion, and the infinite), the Euthyphro dilemma (justification), the liar paradox (truth), the Heap (vagueness), the Ship of Theseus (identity), Antigone (moral conflict), the voting paradox (choice), and the prisoner’s dilemma (action).

PHIL 0041 Western Political Thought I. (Cross-listed as CLS 41, CVS 18, and PS 41.) Central concepts of ancient, medieval, and early modern political thought. Ideas of Thucydides, Aristophanes, Plato, and Aristotle during the rise and fall of Athens. Subsequent transformations of political philosophy related to the decline of the Roman empire and the origins and development of Christian political doctrine, and the new political outlook of those who challenge the hegemony of Christianity. Analysis of how premodern political thought helped structure future political debate.

PHIL 0042 Western Political Thought II. (Cross-listed as PS 42 and CVS 82.) Central concepts of modern political thought. The views of those writers who challenged the dominance of Christianity: Machiavelli, Descartes, Hobbes, and others. Some of the main transformations of political thinking that characterized the Enlightenment: the possibility of scientific thinking and reasoning as the basis for human freedom. Nietzsche's critique of the Enlightenment, and the ability to find political principles that are genuinely true or liberating.

PHIL 0043 Justice, Equality, And Liberty. (Cross-listed as PS 43.) An introduction to the central concepts and problems in the foundations of political order, including the nature of the state, rights, justice, equality, representation, property, law, and coercion. Readings from classic and contemporary thinkers.

PHIL 0045 War and Terrorism. (Cross-Listed as PJS 45 and CVS 17).  Examination of possible justifications of the use of violence and of moral constraints on the conduct of war. Topics include whether combatants bear moral responsibility for fighting, whether terrorism is always wrong, and how are we to understand pacifism as an alternative to violence. Commonly held assumptions about war and terrorism will be scrutinized. Readings from Walzer, Fanon, Clausewitz, Gandhi, Che Guevara, and Mao.

PHIL 0048 Feminist Philosophy. Exploration of gender and its intersections with other identity characteristics, including race, class, gender identification, sexual orientation, cultural/religious affiliation, and disability status. Juxtaposes and compares classic philosophical texts and contemporary feminist approaches to issues in ethics, epistemology, and metaphysics. Lower level of dual level course.

PHIL 0052 Aesthetics. (Cross-listed as VMS 53) A survey of some fundamental problems in the philosophy of art: the nature of aesthetic judgment; the task of criticism, formalism, and formalist criticism; the idea of antiart; the concept of quality in a work of art; modernist vs. traditional art. The course will include writings in contemporary philosophy and criticism as well as works by philosophers such as Hume, Kant, Nietzsche, and Heidegger.

PHIL 0054 Philosophy And Film. Introduction to the study of film as a philosophical medium.  Centers on film's capacity to bring out the ethical dimensions of the problem of distinguishing reality from illusion.  A classic or contemporary film paired with a philosophical text each week.

PHIL 0055 The Making Of The Modern Mind. A survey of key writings in Western thought since the Renaissance. The readings illustrate philosophical treatment of issues in morality, religion, politics, and art. The readings will be selected from Luther, Machiavelli, Shakespeare, Marlowe, Hume, Rousseau, Kant, Kierkegaard, Marx, Mill, Freud, Wittgenstein, and Sartre.

PHIL 0091 Special Topics. No description at this time.

PHIL 0092 Special Topics. No description at this time.

PHIL 0093 Honors Thesis A. This is a yearlong course. Each semester counts as 4 credits towards a student’s credit load. Students will earn 8 credits at the end of the second semester.

PHIL 0094 Honors Thesis B. This is a yearlong course. Each semester counts as 4 credits towards a student’s credit load. Students will earn 8 credits at the end of the second semester.

PHIL 0095 Research Seminar. Collaboration with active faculty research. Flexible course format. Limited enrollment. By application only.

PHIL 0100 Department Discussion Group. Recommendations:  Consent only.

PHIL 0103 Logic. (Cross-listed as LING 103). An accelerated introduction to fundamental concepts of modern formal logic, including sentence logic, quantification theory, identity, and metatheory. Emphasis on the application of formal methods to reasoning in philosophy, mathematics, and everyday affairs. Please note: only one of PHIL, LING 33 and 103 may be taken for credit.

PHIL 0110 Biological Foundations Of Language. (Cross-listed as LING 153 and PSY 153). Is the human ability to learn and use language a specialized cognitive capacity encoded in the genome, or is it just a consequence of having a large brain?  Addresses the evidence bearing on this question, based on the character of language, language learning, and language disability.  The degree to which the language faculty draws on other cognitive capacities, the relation of language to forms of animal communication, and hypotheses about the evolution of the language faculty.
Recommendations:  LING 15/PHIL 15, or consent.

PHIL 0111 Semantics. (Cross-listed as PSY 150 and LING 113.) The structure of meaning as it is encoded in human language and processed by the human brain. Mentalistic theories of sense and reference; word meanings; combining word meanings into phrasal meanings; aspects of meaning not conveyed by words.

PHIL 0112 Syntactic Theory. (Cross-listed as PSY 151 and LING 112.)  Syntax, the study of grammatical structure is the core subcomponent of contemporary linguistics. Syntactic categories, phrase structure, long-distance dependencies, the balance between grammar and lexicon and between syntax and semantics, syntactic universals, and the innate predispositions required for children to learn syntactic structure of their native languages.

PHIL 0113 Cognition Of Society And Culture. (Cross-listed as PSY 132.)  Study of the cognitive capacity required to learn and take part in a culture. Innateness of cognitive capacity; evolutionary psychology; primate societies; cultural universals in human societies; cognitive structure of value systems and their evolutionary antecedents.

PHIL 0114 Topics In Logic. Presentation of topics of interest to philosophers from among the following: computability, automata theory, Post systems, modal logic, model theory, set theory.
Recommended:  PHIL 33 or 103.

PHIL 0116 Philosophy Of Science. (Cross-listed w/STS 116) An examination of central philosophical problems concerning scientific method and scientific knowledge, such as: How is theory related to observation, or prediction to explanation? How can we justify scientific method? Induction? Notions of space and time? Do scientific theories and methods impose a structure on the world? Do they tell us about the real world?
Recommendations:  PHIL 2, and either PHIL 33 or a major in natural or social science.

PHIL 0117 Philosophy Of Mind. A study of theories of the mind and examination of mental concepts such as memory, imagination, consciousness, belief, volition, sensation, and emotion.
Recommendations:  PHIL 2, and either PHIL 33 or a major in psychology.

PHIL 0118 Philosophy Of Biology. (Cross-listed w/STS 118) Conceptual foundations of evolutionary biology and ecology.  Focus on specific theoretical controversies including fitness, natural selection explanations, macroevolution, biological functions, genetics, inheritance and levels of selection.
Recommendations:  Two courses in Philosophy or Biology or consent.

PHIL 0120 Metaphysics. A philosophical examination of concepts basic to our understanding of the world around us: the nature of abstract and concrete reality, problems of space and time, existence and identity, unity and plurality.
Recommendations:  PHIL 2 and 33, or permission of instructor.

PHIL 0121 Ethical Theory. A philosophical examination of highly theoretical issues in normative ethics: what makes something right or wrong, good or evil, just or unjust; the role of moral principles in ethics; the methodology of moral inquiry; consequentialism; utilitarianism; Kantian deontology; pluralistic deontology; virtue theory; impartialism versus partialism; particularism versus generalism.

PHIL 0122 Indian Philosophies. (Cross-listed as REL 141.) Seminar on the doctrines and arguments of the major Indian schools of philosophy (Samkhya, Buddhist, Vedanta, Nyaya-Vaisesika, and Navya-Nyaya). How these schools attempt to ground their religious systems in logical argumentation about the human soul, God, and the path to nirvana.
Recommendations:  (one of the following):REL 43, 44, or 45; or PHIL 33; or permission of instructor.

PHIL 0123 Philosophy Of Law. (Cross-listed as CLS 123). An examination of selected problems in jurisprudence and legal theory arising from the study of the nature of a legal system. Class discussion of decided cases is an integral part of the work in this course.
Recommendations:  Junior standing or permission of instructor.

PHIL 0124 Bioethics. A survey of major ethical problems of interest to the public and the medical profession, including life-and-death issues (abortion, euthanasia) as well as issues raised by medical research and technology (organ transplants, cloning, genetic engineering, psychosurgery, human experimentation) and the delivery of health services. The implications of ethical theories for the particular problem issues. Spring.
Recommendations:  Jr. Standing, PHIL 2 or PHIL 24. 

PHIL 0125 Racism & Social Inequality. Examination of issues in ethics, political philosophy, and philosophy of social sciences raised by race and racism in the U.S. Topics include affirmative action, the justification and critique of inequality (e.g., "blaming the victim"), rights, equality of opportunity, motives, and responsibility.
Recommendations:  One course in philosophy, or two courses in the social sciences, or junior standing with permission of instructor.

PHIL 0126 Theories Of Human Nature. Examination of selected theories of human nature, focusing on the model of rationality presented--usually implicitly in each theory. Among the views to be studied will be that of humans as a rational maximizer of their own self-interest; Freud's theory of the aggressive, instinctual, and irrational roots of rationality; Marx's notion of rationality as tied to self-realization and self-comprehension.
Recommended:  PHIL 2 or two courses in the social sciences.

PHIL 0127 From Athens to Baghdad. (Cross-listed w/CLS 127) Introduction to the elaboration and transmission of key philosophical concepts from classical Antiquity to the Arabic-Islamic tradition and the Latin Middle Ages. Comparative overview of their treatment in these closely interconnected contexts. Rise of translation movements, particularly from Greek into Arabic in 8th- to 10th-century Baghdad, and from Arabic into Latin in 12th-century Andalusia. Examination of how a broad array of topics in metaphysics, natural philosophy, epistemology, psychology, and ethics have been addressed by a number of major authors in the three traditions, with a view to illuminating the main turning points in the transmission and reception of ideas over time.

PHIL 0128 Human Rights: History And Theory. An examination of various theories of "natural" or human rights, from their development in Western European thought of the seventeenth century to their incorporation into modern international law, especially through United Nations declarations, covenants, and charters. The course will focus on two questions: "What is a right?" and "What rights do we have?" Classic and contemporary readings from Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Burke, Bentham, and Marx to Hohfeld, Dworkin, and Thomson.
Recommendations:  Junior Standing or permission of instructor.

PHIL 0129 Meta-ethics. A philosophical examination of moral discourse and practice: the semantics of moral language; the nature of moral judgment; the nature and objectivity of value and obligation; moral realism and anti-realism.

PHIL 0130 Moral Psychology. Philosophical examination of central problems in moral psychology: moral motivation; moral sentiments such as guilt and resentment; practical reasoning; moral agency; free will and responsibility; implications of empirical research on moral intuitions and judgments. Recommendation: one course in philosophy
Recommendations:  One course in Philosophy.

PHIL 0131 Epistemology. An investigation of fundamental issues and problems concerning the nature and scope of human knowledge: belief, truth, evidence; skepticism and certainty; perception; intuition; and the a priori.
Recommendation:  PHIL 2 and 33, or permission of instructor.

PHIL 0133 Philosophy Of Language. (Cross-listed as LING 133).  Examination of concepts fundamental to the nature of language and speech: reference, meaning, speech acts and linguistic competence, the syntax and semantics of natural languages. Philosophical views on these topics,  including those of Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, Quine, Grice, Chomsky, and others.
Recommendations:  PHIL 2 and 33, or permission of instructor.

PHIL 0134 Philosophy Of Social Science. An examination of conceptual problems encountered in the scientific study of human behavior and society: the debate between behaviorists and cognitivists; the relation of psychology to sociology, economics, and the physical sciences; and data and theory construction in the social sciences. Readings from contemporary philosophers and social scientists.
Recommendations:  PHIL 2 and either PHIL 33 or a major in the social sciences.

PHIL 0140 Liberalism And Its Philosophical Critics. (Cross-listed as PS 140 and CVS 140) Examination of alternative conceptions of liberty and morality developed by critics of the Enlightenment. Topics include the charge that liberty as uninhibited activity fails to cultivate genuine individuality, erodes communities, debases culture, and is incapable of establishing norms of justice. Examination of alternative visions of art and politics that aim to establish an autonomous and moral existence. Exploration of whether these alternative visions have been integrated into the traditional liberal framework.

PHIL 0141 Global Justice. (Cross-listed as PJS 141.) A philosophical study of justice in a global context. Topics selected from the following: nationalism, identity and group rights, political resistance and revolution, the conduct of war, human rights and duties of aid, population control, and environmental justice. Theoretical discussions of cultural pluralism and the requirements of justice, universalism vs. relativism, and the limits of partiality.
Recommendations:  Junior standing, or one course in philosophy, or permission of instructor.

PHIL 0143 Philosophy And Public Policy. (Cross-listed as PS 143.) Examination of ethical and other issues in public policy, including constraints imposed by considerations of justice, democratic process, and role-based obligations. The area of policy focus (e.g., health policy, international conflict, civil rights) may vary by year.
Recommendations:  Junior standing, or one course in philosophy.

PHIL 0148 Feminist Philosophy. Exploration of gender and its intersections with other identity characteristics, including race, class, gender identification, sexual orientation, cultural/religious affiliation, and disability status. Juxtaposes and compares classic philosophical texts and contemporary feminist approaches to issues in ethics, epistemology, and metaphysics. Upper level of dual level course.

PHIL 0150 Plato's Socrates. (Cross-listed as CLS 150 and PS 150).  Faced with a death sentence, Socrates claimed that even the fear of death could not prevent him from doing what is right, offering as proof not words, but deeds. Taking Socrates' distinction between words and deeds, and focusing on the relationship between the arguments and the action, we will study the Laches, Symposium, Meno, Protagoras, and Republic, as well as the works recounting his last days, in an attempt to understand Plato's Socrates and his views regarding knowledge, virtue, justice, courage, and the care of one's soul.

PHIL 0151 Ancient Philosophy. (Cross-listed as CLS 151.) History of Western philosophy from its Greek beginnings in the sixth century B.C. with major emphasis on the works of Plato and Aristotle.
Recommendations:  PHIL 2 or permission of instructor.

PHIL 0152 History Of Modern Philosophy. (Cross-listed with CLS 152) Development of the main themes in Western philosophy since the seventeenth century through a reading of major texts by such philosophers as Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant.
Recommendations:  PHIL 2 or junior standing.

PHIL 0154 Islamic Philosophy. (Cross-listed w/ CLS 154) Key problems and figures in Islamic philosophy. The rise of theological controversies in early Islam. The Arabic philosophical tradition between Neo-Platonism and Aristotelianism: Kindi (d. 870), Farabi (d. 950), and Avicenna (d. 1037). Al-Ghazali’s (d.1111) Incoherence of the Philosophers and the response by Averroes (d.1198); the powerful influence of philosophy on later Islamic theology; the anti-Aristotelian, Platonist philosophy of illumination of Suhrawardi (d. 1191), and the mystical monism of Ibn Arabi (d.1240). Developments of philosophy in Safavid Persia, the Ottoman Empire, and Mughal India until the 17th century. No prior knowledge of Islam is required. All readings in English translation. Prerequisites: one philosophy course or permission of instructor.

PHIL 0155 Twentieth-century American And British Philosophy. Survey of the most important movements, figures, and topics in twentieth-century Anglo-American philosophy. Questions include: What place have metaphysical beliefs in a scientific view of the world? To what extent can philosophical problems be resolved by the analysis of language? Emphasis on philosophers in the tradition of Russell and Wittgenstein; contrasts with continental philosophy where appropriate.
Recommended:  PHIL 2 or permission of instructor.

PHIL 0157 The History of Analytic Philosophy. A critical history of Analytic Philosophy from its beginnings in Frege, Russell, and Moore to the late twentieth century, including works by Wittgenstein, Ayer, Quine, and Kripke.  Emphasis on epistemology, philosophy of language, and ethics.

PHIL 0161 Empiricism. A study of the empirical tradition in modern and recent philosophy, beginning with the British empiricists (Locke, Berkeley, Hume).
Recommendations:  PHIL 2 or 33, or permission of instructor.

PHIL 0163 Rationalism. A study of the major themes in Continental Rationalism by means of an analysis of selected writings of Descartes and Leibniz. Topics include the theory of knowledge and the notion of substance and of God.
Recommendations:  PHIL 2 and 33, or permission of instructor.

PHIL 0164 Kant. An introduction to Kant's epistemology and ethics. Much of the course will be devoted to a careful reading of The Critique of Pure Reason. Topics include the possibility and limits of metaphysics; the conditions for the possibility of knowledge and ethical agency; the ideas of God, freedom, and the immortality of the soul and their role in ethical deliberation; the self and its relationship to the world.
Recommendations:  PHIL 2 or permission of instructor.

PHIL 0167 Science Before Newton's Principia. Developing conceptions of science and scientific method from Copernicus to early Newton. Alternative planetary systems, Kepler's laws, and astronomy as an exact science in the seventeenth century. Galileo, Descartes, and Huygens on laws of motion and the evidence for them. Newton's early work in mechanics.
Recommendations:  Junior standing or permission of instructor.

PHIL 0168 Newton's Principia. Systematic examination of Newton's Principia, focusing on the revolutionary conception of scientific theory and evidence it puts forward, as well as on its substantive results. Issues within the philosophy of science raised by the Principia and by its reception over the 150 years following its publication.
Recommendations:  PHIL 167

PHIL 0170 Computation Theory. The nature and limits of symbol manipulation. Automata theory: McCulloch-Pitts networks; the relationship between machines and languages; computable functions; abacuses; the relationship between computation and formal logic; Gödel's incompleteness theorems for arithmetic.
Recommendations:  One or more courses taken from PHIL 33, EE 14, MATH 70 (formerly MATH 46), COMP 15.

PHIL 0185 From Hegel To Nietzsche. Ethical, epistemological, and aesthetic views of seminal philosophers of the nineteenth century: Fichte, Hegel, Marx, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche. Their relationship to philosophical predecessors (particularly Kant), position within nineteenth-century intellectual and cultural history, and current influence.
Recommendations:  PHIL 2, junior standing, or permission of instructor.

PHIL 0186 Phenomenology And Existentialism. A survey of twentieth-century continental philosophy, including works by Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, and Merleau-Ponty. Classical transcendental phenomenology and its critics, existentialism as an ethical doctrine and its cultural influence.
Recommendations: 2 philosophy courses or consent.

PHIL 0187 Seminar In The History Of Philosophy. Selected topics in the history of philosophy with intensive study of either a major philosophical system or one of the classic philosophers.
Recommended:  Two courses in philosophy.

PHIL 0188 Seminar In The History Of Philosophy. Selected topics in the history of philosophy with intensive study of either a major philosophical system or one of the classic philosophers. Please see departmental website for specific details.
Recommended:  Two courses in philosophy.

PHIL 0191 Seminars. Systematic investigation of selected problems in philosophy, the subject to vary from term to term.
Recommended:  Two courses in philosophy.

PHIL 0192 Seminars. Systematic investigation of selected problems in philosophy, the subject to vary from term to term.
Recommended:  Two courses in philosophy.

PHIL 0193 Special Topics. Individual tutorial study of an approved topic.

PHIL 0194 Special Topics. Individual tutorial study of an approved topic.

PHIL 0195 Special Topics. Courses on various topics in problems of philosophy or history of philosophy.
Recommended:  Sophomore standing. According to course topic and instructor.

PHIL 0196 Special Topics. Courses on various topics in problems of philosophy or history of philosophy. 
Recommended:  According to course topic and instructor.

PHIL 0197 Seminar In Ethics, Law, And Society. The seminar addresses ethical questions of public importance, such as morality across boundaries, criminal justice, terrorism and just war, multiculturalism and religious toleration. Special attention to challenges posed to ethical thought by ethnic, religious, and political diversity.

Graduate Courses

PHIL 0291 Graduate Seminar. No description at this time. 

PHIL 0292 Graduate Seminar. No description at this time. 

PHIL 0293 Independent Study. Guided individual study of an approved topic.

PHIL 0294 Independent Study. Guided individual study of an approved topic.

PHIL 0297 Graduate Writing Seminar. A writing workshop open to all Philosophy master's degree candidates who have completed at least one semester in the program.  Graded SAT/UNSAT.
Recommendations:  Master's degree candidacy in Philosophy or permission of department chair; submission in advance of an acceptable paper draft or detailed paper outline to be polished during the course.

PHIL 0299 Qualifying Exam. No description at this time. 

PHIL 0401 Masters Degree Continuation. Part-Time.

PHIL 0402 Masters Degree Continuation. Full- Time. 

PHIL 0405 Grad Teaching Assistant. No description at this time.

PHIL 0406 Grad Research Assistant. No description at this time.