Courses

Fall 2021 Offerings Course Info on SIS Archives

Course Descriptions

The list below includes descriptions of all undergraduate and graduate courses offered by the Department of Biology

Visit the undergraduate and graduate pages for course requirements for specific programs. For up-to-date information on course offerings, schedules, room locations and registration, please visit the Student Information System (SIS).

Undergraduate Courses

Bio 001 Environment Preservation and Improvement. Cross-listed as ENV 91
Seminar based on current readings from environmental journals that provide insight into environmental science for use by scientists, science media, business leaders, and political decision makers. Topic areas include biodiversity and wildlife, alternative energy, ocean protection, climate shift, urban ecology, sustainable agriculture, GIS and remote imagery.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 004 Gross Anatomy. Cross-listed as OTS 102
A systemic approach to human anatomy, including the skeletal, muscular, respiratory, digestive, genital, urinary, and nervous systems. Detailed study of the upper and lower extremities, emphasizing normal function. Laboratory sessions weekly. 
Prerequisites: Any college biology course. 
Typically Offered: Fall, Summer

Bio 005 Neuroanatomy. Cross-listed as OTS 103
The structure and basic function of the nervous system: both central and peripheral nerves analyzed as to functional components, course, and action. Basic tracts of the central nervous system outlined and traced. Laboratory sessions weekly.
Typically Offered: Spring 

Bio 006 Big Bang to Humankind. Cross-listed as CHEM 6 and AST 6
An exploration of the origins of the Universe, the formation of Earth and its structure, the chemistry of life, the development of complex organisms, and the development of modern humans including evidence for the various ideas presented, the scientific method used by scientists, and how the community of scientists evaluate the evidence. This course does not fulfill pre-med requirements for a lab-based chemistry course.
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 007 Environmental Biology. Cross-listed as ENV 7
An examination of major natural and created ecosystems and human influences on them. Biological bases for species distributions, human population size, and conservation. Ecological bases for sound land use and pollution abatement.
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 008 Microbiology of Food.  
Systems-based approach to how microbes play critical roles in the production, processing, and consumption of foods. Tools that microbiologists are using to study the microbiology of food systems; basic principles of microbial diversity, ecology, evolution, physiology, and genetics using a farm-to-gut approach. Equal attention to beneficial microbes as well as the historical and contemporary impacts of pathogens. Guest lectures from farmers, chefs, and local food producers and in-class demonstrations and tastings.
Typically Offered: Fall 

Bio 010 Plants and Humanity. Cross-listed as ENV 10
Principles of botany accenting economic aspects and multicultural implications of plants, their medicinal products, crop potential, and biodiversity. Emphasis placed on global aspects of this dynamic science, with selected topics on acid rain, deforestation, biotechnology, and other applications. Also covered are medicinal, poisonous, and psychoactive species, as well as nutritional sources from seaweeds and mushrooms to mangos and durians. 
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 011 Kinesiology. Cross-listed as Occupational Therapy 104
Introduction to normal human movement. The basic anatomical, physiological, and biomechanical principles that underpin normal movement and function. Includes the assessment of muscle and joint function through manual muscle testing and goniometry. Emphasis on the biomechanics of everyday activities. 
Typically Offered: Summer

Bio 012 Evolution in Our World.  
Designed for non-biology majors, explores the diversity of life on our planet, how that diversity came about, and how human actions are causing changes for the future. The evidence for evolutionary change; the mechanisms through which such changes occur; and the ways in which pollution, ocean acidification, and climate change are subjecting all organisms to a new range of selective pressures. Applications of evolutionary thinking to biomedical research.
Typically Offered: Fall 

Bio 013 Cells and Organisms with Lab. 
An introductory course primarily for prospective biology majors. General biological principles and widely used methods related to current advances in cell and molecular biology, genetics, immunology, plant and biomedical sciences. Two lectures and one laboratory each week. Credit cannot be received for both BIO 13 and ES 11. 
Recommendations: Advanced high-school chemistry and biology recommended.
Typically Offered: Fall, Summer 

Bio 014 Organisms and Population with Lab. 
Forms a logical sequel to BIO 13. Selected topics in animal and plant physiology, development, genetics, and population biology, with emphasis on evolutionary mechanisms. Two lectures and one laboratory each week.
Recommendations: BIO 13 strongly recommended.
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 040 Bioinformatics. Cross-listed as COMP 7
A hands-on introductory course in bioinformatics for students with little or no computer science background. Basic programming skills for data manipulation and analysis. Methods and applications of online tools for sequence alignment, molecular phylogeny, gene expression data analysis, and linking molecular variation to disease. Counts towards the laboratory requirement for the biology major. (Group Q) 
Prerequisites: BIO 41 or BME 62 or equivalent. 
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 041 General Genetics. 
Basic concepts of classical and molecular genetics, including Mendelian genetics, genetic mapping, the genetic code, gene transcription and translation, regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, genomics, and human chromosomal abnormalities. Two lectures. 
Prerequisites: Requires completion of BIO 13 or equivalent.
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 044 Primate Social Behavior. Cross-listed as ANTH 44
 Introduction to social lives of primates. Uses experimental and observational studies to teach students how to understand and engage with scientific literature and method. Covers ecological, physiological, and developmental bases of primate social behavior, with attention to evolution of social interactions among individuals of different age, sex, relatedness, and status. Topics include competition and cooperation, dominance and territoriality, sex and mating, parenting, cognition and conservation. Includes a weekly lab where students will learn primatological methods. No pre-requisites. (Group C)
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 046 Cell Biology.  
Basic concepts of cellular organization, function, and regulation. Emphasis on molecular/biochemical research methods used in the study of protein structure and function, gene expression and regulation, signal transduction, intracellular transport, and cell communication. (Group A) 
Prerequisites: BIO 0013 or permission of instructor.
Recommendations: Completion or co-enrollment in BIO 41.  
Typically Offered: Spring, Summer

Bio 049 Experiments in Physiology. 
Experimental investigations of several problems in physiology using a wide variety of modern techniques. Classes will concentrate on several biological concepts and emphasize appropriate experimental design, data collection, data analysis and presentation. One laboratory session per week plus one discussion period. 
Prerequisites: Requires completion of BIO 14 or equivalent.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 050 Experiments in Molecular Biology.  
Investigation of series of laboratory problems using modern techniques of biotechnology. Gene cloning, recombinant protein expression, protein biochemistry, and immunochemistry are emphasized for teaching state-of-the-art laboratory skills and for reinforcing basic concepts of modern molecular biology. One laboratory session per week plus one discussion period. 
Prerequisites: Requires completion of BIO 13 or equivalent.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 051 Experiments in Ecology. Cross-listed as ENV 51
 An introduction to field research in different habitats. Emphasis on acquiring skills in taxonomic identification, sampling techniques, hypothesis testing and experimental design, data analysis and interpretation, as well as oral and written communication. Opportunity for student-designed group research projects on ecological questions. One laboratory session per week plus one discussion period. 
Prerequisites: Requires completion of BIO 14 or equivalent.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 052 Experiments in Cell Biology.  
The field of Cell Biology focuses on examining cells and the behaviors they perform. This course will introduce students to the investigation of several laboratory problems using standard techniques of cell biology examining diverse organisms, ranging from single cells to intact animals. One laboratory session per week plus one discussion period. 
Prerequisites: Requires completion of BIO 13 or equivalent. 
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 054 Molecular Genetics Projects Lab. 
A discovery-based research experience in the field of molecular genetics, taught at the introductory level. Students will each carry out a related independent research project using modern techniques in genetics and molecular biology to discover gene function, identify proteins that play a role in maintaining genome stability, and develop testable hypotheses. Techniques used will include genetic assays, PCR, gene knockouts, and phenotype analysis. 
Prerequisites: BIO 13. Genetics prior to or concurrent with taking the course is suggested but not required. The course is appropriate for sophomores and juniors with no prior laboratory experience. 
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 055 Microbiome Research Lab.  
Concepts and techniques in microbiome science through independent research projects. Designing and conducting experiments to characterize microbiome diversity, identify processes that control microbiome composition, and quantify functional roles of microbiomes. Principles of experimental design, microbial genomics and metagenomics, microbiome data management and analysis, in vitro microbiome reconstruction, experimental evolution, microbial trait analysis, and microbial genetic screens.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 061 Biology of Aging.
An introduction to concepts relevant to the biology of aging. Focus on molecular, cellular, and physiological changes that occur during the aging process in humans and other organisms. Major topics include theories of aging, genetic regulation of longevity in model systems, and therapeutic modulation of the aging process. (Group A)
Prerequisites: BIO 13 and BIO 14 or their equivalent, or consent. 
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 062 Molecular Biotechnology. Cross-listed as ChBE 62 and BME 02
Overview of key aspects of molecular biology and engineering aspects of biotechnology. Lecture topics include molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, immunology, cell biology, protein purification, fermentation, cell culture, combinatorial methods, and bioinformatics. May be taken at the 100-level with consent. (Group A)
Prerequisites: Consent
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 075 Comparative Vertebrate Physiology.  
A comparative study of vertebrate function. Physiology of selected systems, including digestion, circulation, excretion, respiration, and temperature regulation. Emphasis on physiological adaptations to the environment. Three lectures. (Group B)
Prerequisites: BIO 13 and BIO 14. One year of chemistry recommended. 
Typically Offered: TBD

Bio 093/094 Research in Biology. 
At least ten hours per week of guided laboratory research, generally including one hour of consultation or seminar with research supervisor and a paper. Details of individual project to be worked out with the supervisor. Gives students an opportunity to participate in biological research on the Tufts Medford/Somerville and Boston campuses. Does not satisfy laboratory or course requirement for the major in biology. May be counted as credit toward degree only. Students typically initiate independent research in their sophomore or junior years. Pass/fail grading. 
Recommendations: Permission of research mentor and subsequently course coordinator.
Typically Offered: Bio 93-Spring, Bio 94- Fall

Undergraduate and Graduate Courses

Bio 103 Developmental Biology.
Basic concepts of developmental biology with emphasis on the molecular events underlying the morphological changes that occur during development. Examples will be drawn from a number of phyla to illustrate developmental mechanisms, e.g., gametogenesis, cleavage, organogenesis and determination, cell-cell interactions, induction, and programs of gene activation. (Group A)
Recommendations: BIO 41 or BIO 46.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 104 Immunology. 
Concepts of modern immunology and their importance in biology. Topics include humoral and cellular immune responses, antibody structure and biosynthesis, antigen-antibody interactions, cellular immunology, immunological tolerance, autoimmunity, and tumor immunology. (Group A) 
Recommendations: BIO 41.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 105 Molecular Biology. 
Gene structure and function in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, fundamentals of recombinant DNA technology. Molecular mechanisms of DNA replication and repair, recombination, transcription, and protein synthesis are emphasized. Advanced topics including regulation of gene expression during development, transposition, and regulation of chromatin structure are based on current literature. (Group A)
Recommendations: BIO 41.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 106 Microbiology Lecture. 
A survey of the structures and functions of microbes, including bacteria, archaea, viruses, and eukaryotic microbes (fungi, protists). Topics include microbial genetics, physiology, cell biology, diversity, evolution, ecology, and the human microbiome. BIO 107 (Microbiology Lab) is not required but may be taken concurrently. (Group A or C)
Prerequisites: Requires completion of BIO 13, BIO 14, and BIO 41 or graduate standing.
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 107 Microbiology Lab.
Examination of microbial diversity and function using laboratory techniques to isolate, identify, and manipulate microbes. Introduction to microscopy, sterile technique, microbial cell culture, microbial physiology, sequence-based microbial identification, and antibiotic susceptibility testing. One laboratory session per week. Must be taken concurrently with BIO 106 (Microbiology Lecture).
Prerequisites: BIO 13, BIO 14, and BIO 41, or graduate standing.
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 108 Plant Development. Cross-listed as ENV 108 
Structural and physiological aspects of plant development. Genetic and environmental influences on development as these pertain to germination, root and shoot growth, and plant sexuality and flowering. Information on corn, bean, and tobacco systems will be extended to diverse groups such as cacti, ferns, bromelaids, water plants, parasitic and carnivorous plants. (Group B)
Recommendations: BIO 13 and BIO 14, or equivalent.
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 110 Endocrinology. 
A comprehensive introduction to the chemical and physiological principle of hormonal integration in animals. Topics include endocrine regulation of metabolism, growth and development, reproduction, neural functions, mineral and water balance, behavior, and nutrition. (Group B)
Recommendations: BIO 13 and BIO 14, or equivalent.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 115 General Physiology. 
Elements of homeostasis, circulation, respiration, and excretion are discussed at various levels, from the molecular to the organ system. (Group B) 
Recommendations: BIO 13 and BIO 14, or equivalent.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 116 General Physiology II.   
Elements of homeostasis and of endocrine, nervous, and digestive systems are discussed at various levels, from the molecular to the organ system. Material will include lessons from and comparisons across vertebrates and invertebrates. (Group B)
Prerequisites: BIO 13 and BIO 14, or equivalent.
Typically Offered: Spring 

Bio 117 Physiology of Movement. 
Introduction to the physiological basis of human and animal movement. Topics include biomechanics, kinesiology, muscle and bone physiology, biological materials, and locomotion. (Group B or Q)
Prerequisites: BIO 13 and BIO 14 or equivalent required. Physics 1 and Math 32 will be helpful, but not required.
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 118 Plant Physiology. 
Interaction of living plant components performing biological functions including water transport, mineral uptake, movements, and signaling between plant parts in response to environmental cues. (Group B)
Recommendations: BIO 13 and BIO 14, or equivalent. Introductory chemistry recommended.
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 119 Biophysics. Cross-listed as PHY 25, BME 25 and BME 125
Presentation at an introductory level of selected topics in physics relevant to modern medicine and biology. Development of topics to the point of application to biomedical problems. Topics drawn from acoustics, physics of fluids, diffusion, laser physics, and other subjects varying from year to year. Offered alternate years. (Group Q) 
Recommendations: PHY 1, 2, or 11, 12 or permission of instructor. 
Corequisites: MATH 42 (formerly MATH 13).
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 130 Animal Behavior. Cross-listed as ENV 130
An examination of ethological theory: the development of behavior, orientation, migration, communication, and social behavior. Particular emphasis will be placed on the functioning of animal societies.  (Group C) 
Recommendations: BIO 13 or 14, or equivalent or permission of instructor.
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 131 Principles of Medical Imaging. Cross-listed as BME 131 and EE 131
This interdisciplinary course presents the principles of medical imaging techniques such as diagnostic ultrasound, radiography, X-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For each imaging modality, topics include the physical principles, key aspects of instrumentation design, mathematical methods, and the anatomical/physiological information content of the images. Representative medical images will be discussed and interpreted. This course cannot be taken for basic science requirement for engineering students.
Recommendations: MATH 32 (formerly MATH 11), PHY 2 or 12, or permission of instructor.
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 132 Biostatistics.
An examination of statistical methods for designing, analyzing, and interpreting biological experiments and observations. Topics include probability, parameter estimation, inference, correlation, regression, analysis of variance, and nonparametric methods. (Group Q)
Prerequisites: BIO 13 and BIO 14, or equivalent, plus one additional biology course above BIO 14.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 133 Ecological Statistics and Data w/Lab. 
Probability and likelihood, fitting simple statistical models to data, and using these models to make predictions. Examples come from ecology, emphasis on monitoring plant and animal populations and forecasting how these populations will respond to changing environments. Includes use of discrete probability distributions (binomial and Poisson), building mixed and compounded probability distributions, an introduction to Bayesian statistics, and use of the open-source statistics program, R. Students should have a good working knowledge of high school algebra and an interest in ecology. (Group C or Q)
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 134 Neurobiology.
Biology of nervous systems. From the biophysical basis of neuronal function, through synaptic interactions and signal processing in neural circuits, to behavior, learning, and memory. Examples from both vertebrates and invertebrates. (Group B)
Recommendations: BIO 13 and BIO 14, plus one Group A course in biology or PSY 103.
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 142 Population and Community Ecology. Cross-listed as ENV 142
Introduction to population dynamics (population structure and growth), species interactions (predator-prey, competition, mutualism), and community structure (adaptations to the physical environment, patterns and processes governing the world’s biomes). (Group C)
Prerequisites: BIO 14 or equivalent, or permission of instructor.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 143 Evolutionary Biology w/lab. Cross-listed as ENV 143
Examines hypotheses for patterns of biological diversity and for the apparent good fit of organisms to the environment. Topics include the genetic and developmental basis of evolutionary change, processes at the population level, the theory of evolution by natural selection, concepts of fitness and adaptation, rates and long-term trends in evolution, extinction, biogeographical patterns, determinants of conflict and cooperation, the evolution of sex and life history, modes of speciation, and coevolutionary dynamics. The laboratory will familiarize students with evolutionary genetics methods. Topics include genotype-phenotype relationships, DNA sequence assembly and alignment, gene and gene pathway function, estimation of population demography and phylogenetic relationships, and hypothesis testing. (Group A, C, or Q) 
Recommendations: BIO 13 and BIO 14, or equivalent. 
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 144 Principles of Conservation Biology. Cross-listed as ENV 144
Learning and application of principles from population ecology, population genetics, and community ecology to the conservation of species and ecosystems. Focus on rare and endangered species, as well as threatened ecosystems. Includes applications from animal behavior, captive breeding, and wildlife management. Readings from current texts and primary literature. (Group C)
Recommendations: BIO 14 or equivalent.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 151 Mathematical Neuroscience. Cross listed as MATH 151
Mathematical and computational study of systems of differential equations modeling nerve cells (equilibria, limit cycles, bifurcations), neuronal networks (intrinsic rhythmic synchronization, entrainment by external inputs), and learning (synaptic plasticity), and of the potential function of rhythmic synchrony for signaling among neuronal networks and for plasticity. (Group Q) 
Prerequisites: Math 51 or instructor’s consent.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 152 Biochemistry and Cell Metabolism.
An in-depth examination of the structure and function of biomolecules: chemical and physical properties of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids; enzyme kinetics and mechanisms; metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids and the metabolic relationships of organ systems. (Group A) 
Prerequisites: BIO 13 and CHEM 51 & 53 or equivalent
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 162 Molecular Biotechnology. Cross-listed as BME 162 and CHBE 162
Overview of key aspects of molecular biology and engineering aspects of biotechnology. Lecture topics include molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, immunology, cell biology, protein purification, fermentation, cell culture, combinatorial methods, bioethics, and bioinformatics with review and discussion of primary literature. Comprehensive technical paper on an emerging topic. Students may not receive credit for both BME162 and BME 33. (Group A) 
Recommendations: CHEM 1, BIO 13 or permission of instructor.
Typically Offered: Summer

Bio 163 Recombinant DNA Techniques. Cross-listed as CHBE163 and BME 163
This lecture and laboratory course is designed to familiarize the student with methods employed to produce recombinant products. The lectures cover fundamental aspects of the recombinant DNA methodologies used in the laboratory as well as some commercial applications of the techniques. The laboratory provides hands-on experience with the key skills used in genetic engineering including DNA isolation, restriction enzyme mapping, cloning and selection, protein expression, gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and related techniques. Cannot be taken for credit if BIO 50 is taken for credit. (Group A)
Recommendations: CHEM 1, BIO 13, or permission of instructor.
Typically Offered: Summer

Bio 164 Marine Biology. Cross-listed as ENV 164
An intermediate-level introduction to the biology of marine organisms. Detailed survey of major marine animal and plant groups; food web dynamics; physiological and ecological adaptations to key marine habitats, including the deep sea, coral reefs, estuaries, and the intertidal zone. The impact of global warming, ocean acidification, and overfishing on marine communities and fisheries. (Group C)
Prerequisites: BIO 13 and BIO 14, or equivalent. 
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 168 Biotechnology Processing Projects Lab. Cross-listed as BME 168 and CHBE 168
Laboratory experience with techniques in biotechnology processing: fermentation of recombinant E. coli cells, hybridoma cell culture, purification of proteins and antibodies and related analytical procedures. Laboratories accompanied by lectures and relevant readings to cover the underlying principles. Counts as laboratory course for biology major.
Typically Offered: TBD

Bio 169 Seminar in Biotechnology. Cross-listed as BME 169 and CHBE 169
Seminar course. Journal articles on current biotechnology-related research are reviewed. Leading researchers in the field present seminars and students assess future research directions based on in-depth review of articles and presentations. (Group A)
Recommendations:  BIO 62/162
Typically Offered: TBD

Bio 171 Biochemistry I. Cross- listed as CHEM 171
Structure and function of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Mechanisms and molecular function of binding proteins, enzymes, and membrane transporters. In- depth explorations of metabolic pathways and regulation with connections to physiology and human disease. Prerequisites: CHEM 51 or two semesters of organic chemistry taken elsewhere. (Group A)
Recommendations: BIO 13.
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 172 Biochemistry II. Cross-listed as CHEM 172
Continuation of Biology 171. One course. (Group A) 
Recommendations: BIO 171. 
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 173 R for Biologists. 
Introduction to R, the language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. Programming skills in R will be developed through a combination of reading and doing. (Group Q)
Typically Offered: TBD

Bio 174 Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering. 
Covers synthesis, characterization, and functional properties of organic and inorganic biomaterials and the process of tissue engineering. Fundamental issues related to the utility of biomaterials are explored based on their biocompatability, stability, interfaces, and fate in the body. Clinical applications for biomaterials are explored, as are new directions in design and synthesis to achieve better biocompatibility. Testing methods, regulatory issues, legal constraints, and emerging research directions are also discussed.
Recommendations:  CHEM 2, or permission of instructor.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 178 Seminar in Immunology. 
Advanced topics in immunology. Readings and discussion of the current literature emphasized. Topics include antigen presentation. T-cell activation, cytokine release and effects, self- and non-self recognition, and immunopathology of HIV. (Group A) 
Recommendations: BIO 104 and permission of instructor. 
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 179 Seminar: Marine Biology. 
Exploration of the primary scientific literature in areas selected by mutual consent. Topics may include symbiotic interactions, migration and dispersal, larval ecology, adult feeding and locomotory biology, responses to pollutants, and physiology of deep-sea animals. Strong focus on developing critical reading skills and effective writing through frequent, short assignments. (Group C)
Recommendations: Junior standing and BIO 164 or permission of instructor.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 180 Seminar in Conservation Biology. 
Advanced topics in conservation biology. Readings and discussion of the current literature emphasized. Topics will change each year; example topics are landscape ecology, dynamics and conservation of small populations, and restoration ecology. Please see departmental website for detailed semester course descriptions. (Group C)
Recommendations: Upper level Group C course in Biology
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 181 Tropical Ecology Conservation. Cross-listed as ENV 181
 Ecology and evolution of biodiversity in the tropics. Discussions of original literature; presentations of particular ecosystems, communities, or organisms; team design of research project to be completed during two weeks of intensive fieldwork in December/January in Costa Rica. Meets two times per week during the semester and is followed by a required research trip to Costa Rica. Funding may be available for those in need. (Group C)
Recommendations: BIO 14L or equivalent. Permission of instructor required. 
Typically Offered: Fall- alternate years

Bio 182 Chimpanzee Behavioral Ecology. Cross-listed with ANTH 177
Advanced seminar on current topics in behavioral research of chimpanzees and bonobos. Topics may include foraging, dominance, cooperation, adolescence, reproduction, culture, ranging, cognition, molecular ecology, and social relationships. Discuss behavioral flexibility of chimpanzees among different communities across Africa. Learn to collect and analyze behavioral data. Compare the behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos with that of humans and examine how these species might serve as models for human evolution. (Group C)
Prerequisites: ANTH 44/BIO 44 or consent. 
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 183 Darwinian Medicine Seminar. 
The mechanistic vs. evolutionary causes of diseases and modern medical practice. Focus on the evolutionary causes of disease as a means of sharpening research skills and the understanding and application of Darwinian thought. Evolutionary hypothesis creation and testing in both oral and manuscript form. (Group C) 
Prerequisites: BIO 130 or permission of instructor.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 185 Food4All: Ecology, Technology, Sustainability. Cross-listed as ENV 182
An interdisciplinary examination of the pros and cons of two divergent approaches to meeting the increasing global food demand: organic farming and genetic engineering. Contrasting crops grown in developing and industrialized countries serve as case studies to evaluate: (1) how ecological knowledge makes food production more sustainable; (2) what existing and emerging approaches can, in the face of climate change, contribute to a reliable supply of nutritious food; and (3) the political and economic drivers that shape who has access to these technologies. An important focus is developing communication skills for negotiating stakeholder-specific perspectives (growers, advocacy groups, industry, governmental agencies). Please see departmental website for specific details. (Group C) Recommendations: Intro Bio or Intro Chemistry or equivalent
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 186 Seminar in Field Endocrinology. 
Advanced seminar explores the mechanistic role of endocrine systems in coordinating how animals survive, breed, and adapt to the ever-changing natural environment. Emphasis on wild animals in natural conditions with focus on student-led discussions of primary scientific literature surrounding a core text. (Group B) 
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 188 Seminar in Molecular Biology and Genetics. 
Current topics in molecular biology, genetics and genomics, studied through readings from the original literature. Focus will be on studies recognized by the Nobel Prize Committee as pivotal to modern molecular biology and genetics. These studies and current research directions that follow from them will be covered using a combination of lectures, class discussion, and presentations. Selected topics of current interest to be covered include genome structure and polymorphisms as related to human disease, RNA functioning in the regulation of gene expression, and cell cycle regulation and cancer. (Group A) 
Recommendations: BIO 41 and junior standing or permission of instructor.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 190 DNA: Structure-function.
DNA is the indispensable molecule of life. Fundamentals of DNA structure and functioning are therefore central to understanding molecular genetics and genomics. In this course, DNA structure and function are examined through lectures and discussions of the original scholarly literature. Originally, DNA was believed to be a uniform right-handed double helix with limited structural flexibility. It has now become clear, however, that its structure is highly versatile, and this versatility is vital for major genetic processes. Topics include DNA secondary and tertiary structures, DNA topology and topoisomerases, mechanisms of protein-DNA recognition and the structure of the chromatin; how the principles of DNA organization are employed in key genetic transactions, including DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination. (Group A)
Recommendations: BIO 41 and junior standing or consent.
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 193/194 Independent Research in Biology.
At least fifteen hours per week of laboratory or field investigation, which must include independent design of experiments. Students write a summary of research accomplished and give an oral presentation to members of the department. 
Recommendations: Sophomore standing or higher, and BIO 93 or BIO 94 or equivalent, and prior permission of research mentor and course coordinator.
Typically Offered: BIO 193-Fall, BIO 194- Spring

Bio 195: Independent Study in Biology. 
Exploration of special topics in biology through seminars or guided individual study. Prerequisite: consent. 

Bio 196: Exploratory Topics in Biology.
Exploration of special topics in biology though seminars or lecture. 

Bio 199 Senior Honors Thesis. 
Intensive laboratory or field investigation, including independent design of experiments, a written thesis, and an oral defense. Application is made during the student's sixth semester. Normally, the applicant should have received at least three grades of A toward satisfying the concentration requirements for the biology major and should have a cumulative GPA of at least 3.30. This is a yearlong course. Each semester counts as 4 credits towards a student’s credit load. Students will earn 8 credits at the end of the second semester.

Graduate Courses

Bio 200 Lab Meeting.
Lab meeting of the Professor in the selected section. This course is only for
members of the lab, and should not be chosen without permission of the professor. It is 0 credits.
Typically Offered: Fall & Spring 

Bio 201 Biology Department Seminar.
This course, designed for biology graduate students, explores in a seminar format current research in the field of Biology. A satisfactory grade translates into attendance of >80% of seminars.
Typically Offered: Fall & Spring

Bio 241 Advanced Genetics: DNA Repair and Genome Editing.
This course will teach the current state-of-the-art knowledge of DNA repair pathways that the cell uses to maintain a stable genome, including double-strand break repair, gap repair, repair and replication through DNA structures and chromatin, and consequences of inappropriate repair for cell health and cancer initiation. It will also cover current genome editing technologies including CRISPR-Cas9, adenovirus-mediated gene delivery for gene therapy, and RNAi. The course will have both a lecture component and a presentation/discussion component emphasizing reading original journal articles in these fields and techniques used to make discoveries. 
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 243 Topics in Molecular and Cellular Biology. 
Topics will be chosen from the following and differ each year: DNA repair, DNA replication, regulation of gene transcription, cellular mechanisms of maintaining genome stability, protein structure, protein function and regulation, cell biology of signaling pathways, cell-cell communication and biophysical controls of developmental morphology. Students will read and present papers from the current literature. Novel experimental techniques used to answer central questions will be emphasized. 
(Group A)
Recommendations: A previous course in Cell and Molecular Biology, such as BIO 105 or equivalent, and permission of instructor.
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 244 Graduate Seminar in Evolutionary Ecology.
An examination of current topics in evolutionary ecology, including plant-herbivore coevolution, sexual selection, phenotypic plasticity, life-history strategies, and conservation biology. Reading and discussion of primary literature will include focus on experimental methodologies and statistical methods. 
(Group C)
Recommendations:  BIO 142 or 143, or equivalent, and permission of instructor.
Typically Offered: Spring 

Bio 246 Topics in Physiology of Animal Behavior. 
An examination at the graduate level of current topics in physiology related to animal behavior. Topics may include biomechanics, neurophysiology, endocrinology and cognition. Students will read and present papers from the current literature. Discussions will focus on key papers in the field, critical evaluation of data or published interpretations and an understanding of experimental techniques used to answer central questions. (Group B) 
Prerequisite recommendations: One course from Bio 110, 116, 134 or equivalent, and graduate standing or permission of the instructor.
Typically Offered: Spring 

Bio 253 Graduate Student Research Rotation-Fall.
A research rotation is an opportunity to explore a new area of Biology, to learn new techniques, and to become acquainted with some of the research ongoing in our department as students conduct intensive laboratory or field investigation, including independent design of experiments ending with a final oral report. Students will normally present their findings the Friday before the start of spring semester. Rotation Duration: Oral reports will be given to a group consisting of other students who have just finished a rotation, the sponsoring research mentors, members of the students' committees, graduate students, and other interested persons. 
Recommendations: Consent.

Bio 254 Graduate Student Research Rotation-Spring.
A research rotation is an opportunity to explore a new area of Biology, to learn new techniques, and to become acquainted with some of the research ongoing in our department as students conduct intensive laboratory or field investigation, including independent design of experiments ending with a final oral report. Students will normally present their findings the Friday before the start of spring semester. Rotation Duration: Oral reports will be given to a group consisting of other students who have just finished a rotation, the sponsoring research mentors, members of the students' committees, graduate students, and other interested persons. 
Recommendations: Consent.

Bio 255 Graduate Student Research Rotation-Summer. 
A research rotation is an opportunity to explore a new area of Biology, to learn new techniques, and to become acquainted with some of the research ongoing in our department as students conduct intensive laboratory or field investigation, including independent design of experiments ending with a final oral report. Students will normally present their findings the Friday before the start of spring semester. Rotation Duration: Oral reports will be given to a group consisting of other students who have just finished a rotation, the sponsoring research mentors, members of the students' committees, graduate students, and other interested persons. 
Recommendations: Consent.

Bio 256 Master’s Thesis, First Year. 
This course provides credit for first year graduate student MS thesis research. The content includes learning experimental design, research presentations, and reading papers in the field of the chosen ThMS research. 
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 257 Graduate Research and Experimental Design.
This course provides credit for second year graduate student thesis or dissertation research. The content includes learning experimental design, research presentations, and reading papers in the field of the chosen PhD or ThMS research. 
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 258 Graduate Research and Experimental Design, 2nd Year. 
This course provides credit for second year graduate student thesis or dissertation research. The content includes learning experimental design, research presentations, and reading papers in the field of the chosen PhD or ThMS research.
Typically Offered: Spring

Bio 259 Capstone Research Proposal and Review.
This course consists of writing and successfully defending a Research Proposal by the end of the second PhD year, in accordance with the Biology Graduate Guidelines.

Bio 260 Teaching Biology: Pedagogy and Practice.  
This course aims to enhance the professional development of graduate students by preparing them to teach biological sciences in academic venues that range from community colleges to Research I universities. Graduate student participants will be introduced to issues related to teaching in both lab and lecture settings and will apply effective teaching techniques in their own classrooms. Program participants will learn about pedagogy, gain practical teaching experience, and receive mentoring and formal evaluation of their teaching. The course requirements are designed to be flexible enough to be pursued alongside full-time disciplinary studies yet ensure that participants are rigorously trained in biology-specific pedagogy. 
Recommendations:  Consent / BIO13L Teaching Assistants
Typically Offered: Fall

Bio 262 Science Communication. 
This course is designed to help graduate students learn how to communicate better about science to the public, to their fellow scientists, to advocacy groups, and to funding agencies. Scientists are increasingly called upon to explain and advocate science to diverse groups. This course will provide training in writing, speaking, and graphical presentation skills in a variety of formats. Students will also learn how to effectively edit and critique their work and others’. We will focus on writing and communicating in a popular style so that students can develop their abilities to present information clearly and logically; such skills will translate naturally into writing for scientific journals, for grants, and for presentations at conferences.
Typically Offered: Spring 

Bio 263 Special Topics. 
Please contact the department for detailed information.

Bio 264 Molecular Biotechnology. Cross-listed as CHBE 262 and BME 262
Overview of key aspects of molecular biology and engineering aspects of biotechnology. Lecture topics include molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, immunology, cell biology, protein purification, fermentation, cell culture, combinatorial methods, and bioinformatics. (Group A.)  Includes a semester-long technical project and oral presentation.  (Also offered as lower-level.)
Typically Offered: Spring 

Bio 291 Graduate Seminar in Molecular and Development Biology A/B.
Presentation of individual reports on basic topics in molecular, cellular, and developmental biology to a seminar group for discussion and criticism.

Bio 292 Graduate Seminar A/B. 
Presentation of individual reports on basic topics to a seminar group for discussion and criticism. Contact departmental for specific details.

Bio 293 Special Topics.
Guided individual study of an approved topic.

Bio 294 Special Topics. 
Guided individual study of an approved topic.

Bio 295 Master’s Thesis. 
Guided research on a topic that has been approved as a suitable subject for a master's thesis.

Bio 296 Master’s Thesis. 
Guided research on a topic that has been approved as a suitable subject for a master's thesis.

Bio 297 PhD Dissertation.
Guided research on a topic suitable for a doctoral dissertation.

Bio 298 PhD Dissertation. 
Guided research on a topic suitable for a doctoral dissertation.

Bio 401 Master’s degree Continuation-Part Time. 

Bio 402 Master’s Degree Continuation-Full Time. 

Bio 405 Grad Teaching Assistant.

Bio 406 Grad Research Assistant. 

Bio 501 Doctoral Degree Continuation-Part Time.

Bio 502 Doctoral Degree Continuation-Full Time.