Cognition & Behavior

AI-driven Automated Discovery Tools Reveal Diverse Behavioral Competencies of Biological Networks
Etcheverry, M., Moulin-Frier, C., Oudeyer, P.-Y, and Levin, M. (2024)
eLife, 13: RP92683

Nested Selves: Self-Organization and Shared Markov Blankets in Prenatal Development in Humans
Ciaunica, A., Levin, M., Rosas, F. E., and Friston, K. (2023)
Topics in Cognitive Science, in press, doi:10.1111/tops.12717

The Multiple Realizability of Sentience in Living Systems and Beyond
Rouleau, N., and Levin, M. (2023)
eNeuro, 10(11), doi:10.1523/eneuro.0375-23.2023

Endless forms most beautiful 2.0: teleonomy and the bioengineering of chimaeric and synthetic organisms
Clawson, W. P., and Levin, M. (2023)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 139(4): 457-486

Future Medicine: from molecular pathways to the collective intelligence of the body
Lagasse, E., and Levin, M. (2023)
Trends in Molecular Medicine, 29(9): 687-710

Multiple ways to implement and infer sentience: Commentary on Segundo-Ortiz & Calvo on Plant Sentience
Rouleau, N., and Levin, M. (2023)
Animal Sentience, 8(33): 30

Towards an Ethics of Autopoietic Technology: Stress, Care, and Intelligence
Witkowski, O., Doctor, T., Solomonova, E., Duane, B., and Levin, M. (2023)
Biosystems, 231: 104964

The Brain is not Mental! Coupling Neuronal and Immune Cellular Processing in Human Organisms
Ciaunica, A., Shmeleva, E. V., and Levin, M. (2023)
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 17: 1057622

Bioelectric Networks: the cognitive glue enabling evolutionary scaling from physiology to mind
Levin, M. (2023)
Animal Cognition, doi:10.1007/s10071-023-01780-3

Learning in Transcriptional Network Models: Computational Discovery of Pathway-level Memory and Effective Interventions
Biswas, S., Clawson, W., and Levin, M. (2023)
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 24(1): 285

Active Inference, Morphogenesis, and Computational Psychiatry
Pio-Lopez, L., Kuchling, F., Tung, A., Pezzulo, G., and Levin, M. (2022)
Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 16: 988977

The Free Energy Principle induces neuromorphic development
Fields, C., Friston, K., Glazebrook, J. F., Levin, M., and Marcianò, A. (2022)
Neuromorphic Computing and Engineering, 2: 042002

Generalizing frameworks for sentience beyond natural species
Levin, M. (2022)
Animal Sentience, 7(32): 15

Biology, Buddhism, and AI: Care as the Driver of Intelligence
Doctor, T., Witkowski, O., Solomonova, E., Duane, B., and Levin, M. (2022)
Entropy, 24(5): e24050710

Competency in Navigating Arbitrary Spaces as an Invariant for Analyzing Cognition in Diverse Embodiments
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2022)
Entropy, 24(6): 819

Metacognition as a Consequence of Competing Evolutionary Time Scales
Kuchling, F., Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2022)
Entropy, 24(5): 601

Studying Protista WBR and Repair Using Physarum polycephalum
Sperry, M. M., Murugan, N. J., and Levin, M. (2022)
in S. Blanchoud and B. Galliot (Eds.), Whole-Body Regeneration: Methods in Molecular Biology, 2450: 51-67

Modular cognition
Levin, M., and Yuste, R. (2022)
Aeon Essays

New Clues about the Origins of Biological Intelligence
Yuste, R., and Levin, M. (2021)
Scientific American, December 2021

Behaviorist Approaches to Investigating Memory and Learning: A Primer for Synthetic Biology and Bioengineering
Abramson, C., and Levin, M. (2021)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 14(1): 230-247

Minimal physicalism as a scale-free substrate for cognition and consciousness
Fields, C., Glazebrook, J. F., and Levin, M. (2021)
Neuroscience of Consciousness, 7(2): niab013

Mechanosensation Mediates Long-Range Spatial Decision-Making in an Aneural Organism
Murugan, N., Kaltman, D., Jin, H., Chien, M., Flores, R., Nguyen, C., Tuzoff, D., Minabutdinov, A., Kane, A., Novak, R., Ingber, D., and Levin, M. (2021)
Advanced Materials, 33(34): 2008161

Life, death, and self: Fundamental questions of primitive cognition viewed through the lens of body plasticity and synthetic organisms
Levin, M. (2021)
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 564: 114-133

Learning and synaptic plasticity in 3D bioengineered neural tissues
Rouleau, N., Cairns, D. M., Rusk, W., Levin, M., and Kaplan, D. (2021)
Neuroscience Letters, 750: 135799

Bistability of Somatic Pattern Memories: Stochastic Outcomes in Bioelectric Circuits Underlying Regeneration
Pezzulo, G., Lapalme, J., Durant, F., and Levin, M. (2021)
Philosophical Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 376(1821): 20190765

Uncovering cognitive similarities and differences, conservation and innovation
Levin, M., Keijzer, F., Lyon, P., and Arend, D. (2021)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376 (1821): 20200458

Living things are not (20th Century) machines: updating mechanism metaphors in light of the modern science of machine behavior
Bongard, J., and Levin, M. (2021)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 9: 650726

Reframing cognition: getting down to biological basics
Lyon, P., Keijzer, F., Arendt, D., and Levin, M. (2021)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376(1820): 20190750

How Do Living Systems Create Meaning?
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2020)
Philosophies, 5(4): 36-59

Integrating Variational Approaches to Pattern Formation into a Deeper Physics: Reply to comments on "Morphogenesis as Bayesian Inference: A Variational Approach to Pattern Formation and Manipulation in Complex Biological Systems"
Kuchling, F., Friston, K., Georgiev, G., and Levin, M., (2020)
Physics of Life Reviews, 33:125-128

Optogenetically induced cellular habituation in non-neuronal cells
Bonzanni, M., Rouleau, N., Levin, M., and Kaplan, D. L. (2020)
PLOS One, 15(1): e0227230

Modeling somatic computation with non-neural bioelectric networks
Manicka, S., and Levin, M. (2019)
Scientific Reports 9: 18612

The Computational Boundary of a 'Self': Developmental Bioelectricity Drives Multicellularity and Scale-Free Cognition
Levin, M. (2019)
Frontiers in Psychology, 10: 2688

On the generalization of habituation: how discrete biological systems respond to repetitive stimuli
Bonzanni, M., Rouleau, N., Levin, M., and Kaplan, D. (2019)
BioEssays, 41(7): 1900028

The Cognitive Lens: a primer on conceptual tools for analysing information processing in developmental and regenerative morphogenesis
Manicka, S., and Levin, M. (2019)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 374(1774): 20180369

Pattern Regeneration in Coupled Networks
Moore, D. G., Walker, S. I., and Levin, M. (2018)
in T. Ikegami, N. Virgo, O. Witkowski, M. Oka, R. Suzuki, and H. Iizuka (Eds.), ALIFE 2018: The 2018 Conference on Artificial Life. MIT Press: Tokyo, p. 204-205

Embodying Markov blankets. Comment on 'Answering Schrödinger's question: A free-energy formulation' by Maxwell James Désormeau Ramstead et al
Pezzulo, G., and Levin, M. (2018)
Physics of Life Reviews, 24: 32-36

Slime mould: the fundamental mechanisms of biological cognition
Vallverdu, J., Castro, O., Mayne, R., Talanov, M., Levin, M., Baluska, F., Gunji, Y., Dussutour, A., Zenil, H., and Adamatzky, A. (2018)
BioSystems, 165: 57-70

The brain is required for normal muscle and nerve patterning during early Xenopus development
Herrera-Rincon, C., Pai, V. P., Moran, K. M., Lemire, J. M., and Levin, M. (2017)
Nature Communications, 8(1): 587

Serotonergic stimulation induces nerve growth and promotes visual learning via posterior eye grafts in a vertebrate model of induced sensory plasticity
Blackiston, D., Vien, K., and Levin, M. (2017)
NPJ Regenerative Medicine, 2: 8

Reversals of bodies, brains, and behavior: quantitative analysis of laterality and its disturbance in model species
Blackiston, D. J., and Levin, M. (2017)
in L. J. Rogers and G. Vallortigara (Eds.), Lateralized Brain Functions: Methods in Human and Non-human Species, "Neuromethods", W. Walz (Ed.), 122: 667-694

On Having No Head: Cognition throughout Biological Systems
Baluska, F., and Levin, M. (2016)
Frontiers in Psychology, 7: 902

Color and intensity discrimination in Xenopus laevis tadpoles
Rothman, G., Blackiston, D., and Levin, M. (2016)
Animal Cognition, 19(5): 911-919

Towards a physarum learning chip
Whiting, J. G. H., Jones, J., Bull, L., Levin, M., and Adamatzky, A. (2016)
Scientific Reports, 6: 19948

The stability of memories during brain remodeling: A perspective
Blackiston, D. J., Shomrat, T., and Levin, M. (2015)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 8(5): e1073424

An automated training paradigm reveals long-term memory in planaria and its persistence through head regeneration
Shomrat, T., and Levin, M. (2013)
Journal of Experimental Biology, 216(20): 3799-3810

Inversion of left-right asymmetry alters performance of Xenopus tadpoles in nonlateralized cognitive tasks
Blackiston, D. J., and Levin, M., (2013)
Animal Behaviour, 86(2): 459-466

Ectopic eyes outside the head in Xenopus tadpoles provide sensory data for light-mediated learning
Blackiston, D. J., and Levin, M. (2013)
Journal of Experimental Biology, 216(6): 1031-1040

Aversive training methods in Xenopus laevis: general principles
Blackiston, D. J., and Levin, M. (2012)
Cold Spring Harbor Protocols, 2012(5): 521-527

A second-generation device for automated training and quantitative behavior analyses of molecularly tractable model organisms
Blackiston, D., Shomrat, T., Nicolas, C. L., Granata, C., and Levin, M. (2010)
PLoS One, 5(12): e14370

The planarian regeneration model as a context for the study of drug effects and mechanisms
Oviedo, N., and Levin, M. (2008)
in R. B. Raffa & S. M. Rawls (Eds.), Planaria: A Model for Drug Action and Abuse, RG Landes Co.: Austin, pp. 95-104

Analysis of behavior in the planarian model
Nicolas, C. L., Abramson, C. I., and Levin, M. (2008)
in R. B. Raffa & S. M. Rawls (Eds.), Planaria: A Model for Drug Action and Abuse, RG Landes Co.: Austin, pp. 83-94

Automated Analysis of Behavior: A Computer-Controlled System for Drug Screening and the Investigation of Learning
Hicks, C., Sorocco, D., and Levin, M. (2006)
Journal of Neurobiology, 66(9): 977-990

The evolution of understanding: A genetic algorithm model of the evolution of animal communication
Levin, M. (1995)
BioSystems, 36(3): 167-178