Collective Intelligence of Morphogenesis as a Teleonomic Process
Levin, M. (2023)
in Corning, P. A., Kauffman, S. A., Noble, D., Shapiro, J. A., Vane-Wright, R. I. Pross, A. (Eds.), Evolution "On Purpose": Teleonomy in Living Systems, The MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, 175-197

Endless forms most beautiful 2.0: teleonomy and the bioengineering of chimaeric and synthetic organisms
Clawson, W. P., and Levin, M. (2023)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 139(4): 457-486

Darwin’s agential materials: evolutionary implications of multiscale competency in developmental biology
Levin, M. (2023)
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 80: 142

Cellular Competency during Development Alters Evolutionary Dynamics in an Artificial Embryogeny Model
Shreesha, L., and Levin, M. (2023)
Entropy, 25(1): 131

Competition for Finite Resources as Coordination Mechanism for Morphogenesis: an evolutionary algorithm study of digital embryogeny
Smiley, P., and Levin, M. (2022)
BioSystems, 221: 104672

Competency in Navigating Arbitrary Spaces as an Invariant for Analyzing Cognition in Diverse Embodiments
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2022)
Entropy, 24(6): 819

Metacognition as a Consequence of Competing Evolutionary Time Scales
Kuchling, F., Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2022)
Entropy, 24(5): 601

Design for an Individual: Connectionist approaches to the evolutionary transitions in individuality
Watson, R. A., Levin, M., and Buckley, C. L. (2022)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 10: 823588

Technological Approach to Mind Everywhere: an experimentally-grounded framework for understanding diverse bodies and minds
Levin, M. (2022)
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 16: 768201

Modular cognition
Levin, M., and Yuste, R. (2022)
Aeon Essays

Evolution and emergence: higher order information structure in protein interactomes across the tree of life
Klein, B., Hoel, E., Swain, A., Griebenow, R., and Levin, M. (2021)
Integrative Biology, 13(12): 283-294

New Clues about the Origins of Biological Intelligence
Yuste, R., and Levin, M. (2021)
Scientific American, December 2021

Life, death, and self: Fundamental questions of primitive cognition viewed through the lens of body plasticity and synthetic organisms
Levin, M. (2021)
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 564: 114-133

Uncovering cognitive similarities and differences, conservation and innovation
Levin, M., Keijzer, F., Lyon, P., and Arend, D. (2021)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376 (1821): 20200458

Gene Regulatory Networks Exhibit Several Kinds of Memory: Quantification of Memory in Biological and Random Transcriptional Networks
Biswas, S., Manicka, S., Hoel, E., and Levin, M. (2021)
iScience, 24(3): 102131

Living things are not (20th Century) machines: updating mechanism metaphors in light of the modern science of machine behavior
Bongard, J., and Levin, M. (2021)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 9: 650726

Unlimited plasticity of embodied, cognitive subjects: a new playground for the UAL framework
Levin, M. (2021)
Biology and Philosophy, 36(2): 17

Reframing cognition: getting down to biological basics
Lyon, P., Keijzer, F., Arendt, D., and Levin, M. (2021)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376(1820): 20190750

Why isn't sex optional? Stem-cell competition, loss of regenerative capacity, and cancer in metazoan evolution
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2020)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 13(1): 170-183

Emergence of Informative Higher Scales in Biological Systems: a computational toolkit for optimal prediction and control
Hoel, E., and Levin, M.,(2020)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 13(1): 108-118

Scale-Free Biology: Integrating Evolutionary and Developmental Thinking
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2020)
BioEssays, 42(8): 1900228

Extra-genomic instructive influences in morphogenesis: A review of external signals that regulate growth and form
Tung, A., and Levin, M. (2020)
Developmental Biology, 461(1): 1-12  

Does evolution have a target morphology?
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2020)
Organisms. Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(1): 57-76

Does regeneration recapitulate phylogeny?
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2020)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 13(1): 27-38

Morphological Coordination: A Common Ancestral Function Unifying Neural and Non-Neural Signaling
Fields, C., Bischof, J., and Levin, M. (2020)
Physiology, 35: 16-30

How to understand cells, tissues and organisms as agents with agendas
Levin, M., and Dennett, Daniel C. (2020)
Aeon Essays

Reverse-engineering growth and form in Heidelberg
Levin, M., and Martinez-Arias, A. (2019)
Development, 146(14): dev177261

Multiscale Memory and Bioelectric Error Correction in the Cytoplasm-Cytoskeleton-Membrane System
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2018)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine, 10(2): e1410

Are planaria individuals? What regenerative biology is telling us about the nature of multicellularity
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2018)
Evolutionary Biology, 45(3): 237-247

On Having No Head: Cognition throughout Biological Systems
Baluska, F., and Levin, M. (2016)
Frontiers in Psychology, 7: 902

Genome-wide analysis reveals conserved transcriptional responses downstream of resting potential change in Xenopus embryos, axolotl regeneration, and human mesenchymal cell differentiation
Pai, V. P., Martyniuk, C. J., Echeverri, K., Sundelacruz, S., Kaplan, D. L., and Levin, M. (2016)
Regeneration, 3(1): 3-25

Endogenous bioelectrical networks store non-genetic patterning information during development and regeneration
Levin, M. (2014)
Journal of Physiology, 592(11): 2295-2305

Early nonciliary role for microtubule proteins in left–right patterning is conserved across kingdoms
Lobikin, M., Wang, G., Xu, J.-S., Hsieh, Y.-W., Chuang, C.-F., Lemire, J. M., and Levin, M. (2012)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 109(31): 12586-12591

Perspectives and open problems in the early phases of left-right patterning
Vandenberg, L., and Levin, M. (2009)
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 20(4): 456-463

Gap junctions provide new links in Left-Right patterning
Oviedo, N., and Levin, M. (2007)
Cell, 129(4): 645-647

Is the Early Left-Right Axis like a Plant, a Kidney, or a Neuron? The Integration of Physiological Signals in Left-Right Asymmetry
Levin, M. (2006)
Birth Defects Research (Part C), 78(3): 191-223

Evolutionary conservation of mechanisms upstream of asymmetric nodal expression: Reconciling chick and Xenopus
Levin, M., and Mercola, M. (1998)
Developmental Genetics, 23(3): 185-193

The evolution of understanding: A genetic algorithm model of the evolution of animal communication
Levin, M. (1995)
BioSystems, 36(3): 167-178