Foundations

The Multiple Realizability of Sentience in Living Systems and Beyond
Rouleau, N., and Levin, M. (2023)
eNeuro, 10(11), doi:10.1523/eneuro.0375-23.2023

Collective Intelligence of Morphogenesis as a Teleonomic Process
Levin, M. (2023)
in Corning, P. A., Kauffman, S. A., Noble, D., Shapiro, J. A., Vane-Wright, R. I. Pross, A. (Eds.), Evolution "On Purpose": Teleonomy in Living Systems, The MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, 175-197

Endless forms most beautiful 2.0: teleonomy and the bioengineering of chimaeric and synthetic organisms
Clawson, W. P., and Levin, M. (2023)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 139(4): 457-486

Future Medicine: from molecular pathways to the collective intelligence of the body
Lagasse, E., and Levin, M. (2023)
Trends in Molecular Medicine, 29(9): 687-710

Towards an Ethics of Autopoietic Technology: Stress, Care, and Intelligence
Witkowski, O., Doctor, T., Solomonova, E., Duane, B., and Levin, M. (2023)
Biosystems, 231: 104964

Regulative development as a model for origin of life and artificial life studies
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2023)
Biosystems, 229: 104927

Bioelectric Networks: the cognitive glue enabling evolutionary scaling from physiology to mind
Levin, M. (2023)
Animal Cognition, doi:10.1007/s10071-023-01780-3

Cellular Signaling Pathways as Plastic, Proto-cognitive Systems: Implications for Biomedicine
Mathews, J., Chang, J., Devlin, L., and Levin, M. (2023)
Patterns, 4: 100737

Active Inference, Morphogenesis, and Computational Psychiatry
Pio-Lopez, L., Kuchling, F., Tung, A., Pezzulo, G., and Levin, M. (2022)
Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 16: 988977

Information Theory as an experimental tool for integrating disparate biophysical signaling modules
McMillen, P., Walker, S. I., and Levin, M. (2022)
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(17): 9580

Generalizing frameworks for sentience beyond natural species
Levin, M. (2022)
Animal Sentience, 7(32): 15

Biology, Buddhism, and AI: Care as the Driver of Intelligence
Doctor, T., Witkowski, O., Solomonova, E., Duane, B., and Levin, M. (2022)
Entropy, 24(5): e24050710

Competency in Navigating Arbitrary Spaces as an Invariant for Analyzing Cognition in Diverse Embodiments
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2022)
Entropy, 24(6): 819

Neurons as hierarchies of quantum reference frames
Fields, C., Glazebrook, J. F., and Levin, M. (2022)
Biosystems, 219: 104714

A free energy principle for generic quantum systems 
Fields, C., Friston, K., Glazebrook, J. F., and Levin, M. (2022)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 173: 36-59

Metacognition as a Consequence of Competing Evolutionary Time Scales
Kuchling, F., Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2022)
Entropy, 24(5): 601

Design for an Individual: Connectionist approaches to the evolutionary transitions in individuality
Watson, R. A., Levin, M., and Buckley, C. L. (2022)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 10: 823588

Technological Approach to Mind Everywhere: an experimentally-grounded framework for understanding diverse bodies and minds
Levin, M. (2022)
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 16: 768201

Minimal physicalism as a scale-free substrate for cognition and consciousness
Fields, C., Glazebrook, J. F., and Levin, M. (2021)
Neuroscience of Consciousness, 7(2): niab013

Life, death, and self: Fundamental questions of primitive cognition viewed through the lens of body plasticity and synthetic organisms
Levin, M. (2021)
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 564: 114-133

Living things are not (20th Century) machines: updating mechanism metaphors in light of the modern science of machine behavior
Bongard, J., and Levin, M. (2021)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 9: 650726

How Do Living Systems Create Meaning?
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2020)
Philosophies, 5(4): 36-59

Emergence of Informative Higher Scales in Biological Systems: a computational toolkit for optimal prediction and control
Hoel, E., and Levin, M.,(2020)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 13(1): 108-118

Applications and ethics of computer-designed organisms
Levin, M., Bongard, J., and Lunshof, J. E. (2020)
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 21(11): 655–656

Scale-Free Biology: Integrating Evolutionary and Developmental Thinking
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2020)
BioEssays, 42(8): 1900228

Integrating Variational Approaches to Pattern Formation into a Deeper Physics: Reply to comments on "Morphogenesis as Bayesian Inference: A Variational Approach to Pattern Formation and Manipulation in Complex Biological Systems"
Kuchling, F., Friston, K., Georgiev, G., and Levin, M. (2020)
Physics of Life Reviews, 33: 125-128

Morphogenesis as Bayesian Inference: a Variational Approach to Pattern Formation and Control in Complex Biological Systems
Kuchling, F., Friston, K., Georgiev, G., and Levin, M. (2020)
Physics of Life Reviews, 33: 88-108

How to understand cells, tissues and organisms as agents with agendas
Levin, M., and Dennett, D. C. (2020)
Aeon Essays

The Computational Boundary of a 'Self': Developmental Bioelectricity Drives Multicellularity and Scale-Free Cognition
Levin, M. (2019)
Frontiers in Psychology, 10: 2688

A Call for a Better Understanding of Causation in Cell Biology
Bizzari, M., Brash, D., Briscoe, J., Grieneisen, V., Stern, C. D., and Levin, M. (2019)
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 20(5): 261-262

Inform: Efficient Information-Theoretic Analysis of Collective Behaviors
Moore, D. G., Valentini, G., Walker, S. I., and Levin, M. (2018)
Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 5: 60

Embodying Markov blankets. Comment on 'Answering Schrödinger's question: A free-energy formulation' by Maxwell James Désormeau Ramstead et al.
Pezzulo, G., and Levin, M. (2018)
Physics of Life Reviews, 24: 32-36

Top-down models in biology: explanation and control of complex living systems above the molecular level
Pezzulo, G., and Levin, M. (2016)
Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 13(124): 20160555

On Having No Head: Cognition throughout Biological Systems
Baluska, F., and Levin, M. (2016)
Frontiers in Psychology, 7: 902

Re-membering the body: applications of computational neuroscience to the top-down control of regeneration of limbs and other complex organs
Pezzulo, G., and Levin, M. (2015)
Integrative Biology, 7(12): 1487-1517