Reviews & Hypotheses

Machine Learning for Hypothesis Generation in Biology and Medicine: Exploring the latent space of neuroscience and developmental bioelectricity
O’Brien, T., Stremmel, J., Pio-Lopez, L., McMillen, P., Rasmussen-Ivey, C., and Levin, M. (2024)
Digital Discovery, 3(2): 249-263

From reinforcement learning to agency: Frameworks for understanding basal cognition
Seifert, G., Sealander, A., Marzen, S., and Levin, M. (2024)
BioSystems, 235(1): 105107

Nested Selves: Self-Organization and Shared Markov Blankets in Prenatal Development in Humans
Ciaunica, A., Levin, M., Rosas, F. E., and Friston, K. (2023)
Topics in Cognitive Science, in press, doi:10.1111/tops.12717

The Multiple Realizability of Sentience in Living Systems and Beyond
Rouleau, N., and Levin, M. (2023)
eNeuro, 10(11), doi:10.1523/eneuro.0375-23.2023

Cancer’s unique bioelectric properties: from cells to body-wide networks, Comment on: “The distinguishing electrical properties of cancer cells” by Elisabetta Di Gregorio, Simone Israel, Michael Staelens, Gabriella Tankel, Karthik Shankar, and Jack A. Tuszynski
Mathews, J., and Levin, M. (2023)
Physics of Life Reviews, 47: 113-115

Collective Intelligence of Morphogenesis as a Teleonomic Process
Levin, M. (2023)
in Corning, P. A., Kauffman, S. A., Noble, D., Shapiro, J. A., Vane-Wright, R. I. Pross, A. (Eds.), Evolution "On Purpose": Teleonomy in Living Systems, The MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, 175-197

Endless forms most beautiful 2.0: teleonomy and the bioengineering of chimaeric and synthetic organisms
Clawson, W. P., and Levin, M. (2023)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 139(4): 457-486

Correcting instructive electric potential patterns in multicellular systems: External actions and endogenous processes
Cervera, J., Levin, M., and Mafé, S. (2023)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects, 1867(10): 130440

Future Medicine: from molecular pathways to the collective intelligence of the body
Lagasse, E., and Levin, M. (2023)
Trends in Molecular Medicine, 29(9): 687-710

Multiple ways to implement and infer sentience: Commentary on Segundo-Ortiz & Calvo on Plant Sentience
Rouleau, N., and Levin, M. (2023)
Animal Sentience, 8(33): 30

Towards an Ethics of Autopoietic Technology: Stress, Care, and Intelligence
Witkowski, O., Doctor, T., Solomonova, E., Duane, B., and Levin, M. (2023)
Biosystems, 231: 104964

Bioelectricidad en agregados multicelulares de células no excitables: modelos biofísicos
Cervera, J., Levin, M., and Mafé, S. (2023)
Revista Española de Física, 37(2), 24-29

The Brain is not Mental! Coupling Neuronal and Immune Cellular Processing in Human Organisms
Ciaunica, A., Shmeleva, E. V., and Levin, M. (2023)
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 17: 1057622

The collective intelligence of evolution and development
Watson, R., and Levin, M. (2023)
Collective Intelligence, 2(2), doi:10.1177/26339137231168355

Bioelectric Networks: the cognitive glue enabling evolutionary scaling from physiology to mind
Levin, M. (2023)
Animal Cognition, doi:10.1007/s10071-023-01780-3

Darwin’s agential materials: evolutionary implications of multiscale competency in developmental biology
Levin, M. (2023)
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 80: 142

Morphoceuticals: Perspectives for discovery of drugs targeting anatomical control mechanisms in regenerative medicine, cancer and aging
Pio-Lopez, L., and Levin, M. (2023)
Drug Discovery Today, 28(6): 103585

Biological Robots: Perspectives on an Emerging Interdisciplinary Field
Blackiston, D., Kriegman, S., Bongard, J., and Levin, M. (2023)
Soft Robotics, 10(4): 694-686

Synthetic morphology with agential materials
Davies, J., and Levin, M. (2023)
Nature Reviews Bioengineering, 1(1): 46-59

Bioelectricity of non-excitable cells and multicellular pattern memories: Biophysical modeling
Cervera, J., Levin, M., and Mafe, S. (2023)
Physics Reports, 1004: 1-31

Active Inference, Morphogenesis, and Computational Psychiatry
Pio-Lopez, L., Kuchling, F., Tung, A., Pezzulo, G., and Levin, M. (2022)
Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 16: 988977

Generalizing frameworks for sentience beyond natural species
Levin, M. (2022)
Animal Sentience, 7(32): 15

Biology, Buddhism, and AI: Care as the Driver of Intelligence
Doctor, T., Witkowski, O., Solomonova, E., Duane, B., and Levin, M. (2022)
Entropy, 24(5): e24050710

Competency in Navigating Arbitrary Spaces as an Invariant for Analyzing Cognition in Diverse Embodiments
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2022)
Entropy, 24(6): 819

Design for an Individual: Connectionist approaches to the evolutionary transitions in individuality
Watson, R. A., Levin, M., and Buckley, C. L. (2022)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 10: 823588

Technological Approach to Mind Everywhere: an experimentally-grounded framework for understanding diverse bodies and minds
Levin, M. (2022)
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 16: 768201

Modular cognition
Levin, M., and Yuste, R. (2022)
Aeon Essays

Multi-scale Chimerism: an experimental window on the algorithms of anatomical control
Nanos, V., and Levin, M. (2022)
Cells and Development, 169: 203764 [cover]

A Computational Approach to Explaining Bioelectrically-induced Persistent, Stochastic Changes of Axial Polarity in Planarian Regeneration
Grodstein, J., and Levin, M. (2022)
Bioelectricity, 4(1): 18-30

New Clues about the Origins of Biological Intelligence
Yuste, R., and Levin, M. (2021)
Scientific American, December 2021

Behaviorist Approaches to Investigating Memory and Learning: A Primer for Synthetic Biology and Bioengineering
Abramson, C., and Levin, M. (2021)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 14(1): 230-247

Metabolic limits on classical information processing by biological cells
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2021)
BioSystems, 209: 104513

Beyond Neurons: Long Distance Communication in Development and Cancer
McMillen, P., Oudin, M. J, Levin, M., and Payne, S. L. (2021)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 9: 739024 

Minimal physicalism as a scale-free substrate for cognition and consciousness
Fields, C., Glazebrook, J. F., and Levin, M. (2021)
Neuroscience of Consciousness, 7(2): niab013 

Life, death, and self: Fundamental questions of primitive cognition viewed through the lens of body plasticity and synthetic organisms
Levin, M. (2021)
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 564: 114-133

Synthetic living machines: A new window on life
Ebrahimkhani, M., and Levin, M. (2021)
iScience, 24(5): 102505

Bioelectrical approaches to cancer as a problem of the scaling of the cellular self
Levin, M. (2021)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 165: 102-113

Bioelectric Signaling: Reprogrammable Circuits Underlying Embryogenesis, Regeneration, and Cancer
Levin, M. (2021)
Cell, 184(8): 1971-1989

Bistability of Somatic Pattern Memories: Stochastic Outcomes in Bioelectric Circuits Underlying Regeneration
Pezzulo, G., Lapalme, J., Durant, F., and Levin, M. (2021)
Philosophical Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 376(1821): 20190765

Uncovering cognitive similarities and differences, conservation and innovation
Levin, M., Keijzer, F., Lyon, P., and Arend, D. (2021)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376 (1821): 20200458

Living things are not (20th Century) machines: updating mechanism metaphors in light of the modern science of machine behavior
Bongard, J., and Levin, M. (2021)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 9: 650726

Unlimited plasticity of embodied, cognitive subjects: a new playground for the UAL framework
Levin, M. (2021)
Biology and Philosophy, 36(2): 17

Reframing cognition: getting down to biological basics
Lyon, P., Keijzer, F., Arendt, D., and Levin, M. (2021)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376(1820): 20190750

Shape changing robots: bioinspiration, simulation, and physical realization
Shah, D., Yang, B., Kriegman, S., Levin, M., Bongard, J., and Kramer-Bottiglio, R. (2021)
Advanced Materials, 33(19): 2002882

Inducing Vertebrate Limb Regeneration: A Review of Past Advances and Future Outlook
Davidian, D., and Levin, M. (2021)
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a040782

A Meta-Analysis of Bioelectric Data in Cancer, Embryogenesis, and Regeneration
Srivastava, P., Kane, A., Harrison, C., and Levin, M. (2021)
Bioelectricity, 3(1): 42-67

Why isn't sex optional? Stem-cell competition, loss of regenerative capacity, and cancer in metazoan evolution
Fields, C., and Levin, M., (2020),
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 13(1): 170-183 

How Do Living Systems Create Meaning?
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2020)
Philosophies, 5(4): 36-59

How Groups of Cells Cooperate to Build Organs and Organisms
Levin, M. (2020)
The Scientist, 34(9): 38-45

Emergence of Informative Higher Scales in Biological Systems: a computational toolkit for optimal prediction and control
Hoel, E., and Levin, M., (2020)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 13(1): 108-118  

Applications and ethics of computer-designed organisms
Levin, M., Bongard, J., and Lunshof, J. E. (2020)
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 21(11): 655–656

Scale-Free Biology: Integrating Evolutionary and Developmental Thinking
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2020)
BioEssays, 42(8): 1900228

Competitive and Coordinative Interactions between Body Parts Produce Adaptive Developmental Outcomes
Gawne, R., McKenna, K., and Levin, M. (2020)
BioEssays, 42(8): 1900245

Integrating Variational Approaches to Pattern Formation into a Deeper Physics: Reply to comments on "Morphogenesis as Bayesian Inference: A Variational Approach to Pattern Formation and Manipulation in Complex Biological Systems"
Kuchling, F., Friston, K., Georgiev, G., and Levin, M. (2020)
Physics of Life Reviews, 33:125-128

Morphogenesis as Bayesian Inference: a Variational Approach to Pattern Formation and Control in Complex Biological Systems
Kuchling, F., Friston, K., Georgiev, G., and Levin, M. (2020)
Physics of Life Reviews, 33: 88-108

Bioelectrical Coupling of Single-Cell States in Multicellular Systems
Cervera, J., Levin, M., and Mafe, S. (2020), 
The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 11(9): 3234-3241

Extra-genomic instructive influences in morphogenesis: A review of external signals that regulate growth and form
Tung, A., and Levin, M. (2020)
Developmental Biology, 461(1): 1-12  

Does evolution have a target morphology?
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2020)
Organisms. Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(1): 57-76

Opinion: Use the Pandemic to Expand the Lab to the Home
Levin, M. (2020)
The Scientist

Revisiting Burr and Northrop's 'The Electro-Dynamic Theory of Life'
Levin, M. (2020)
Biological Theory, 15: 83-90 

Does regeneration recapitulate phylogeny?
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2020)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 13(1): 27-38

Formin, an opinion
Davison, A., McDowell, G. S., Holden, J. M., Johnson, H. F., Wade, C. M., Chiba, S., Jackson, D. J., Levin, M., and Blaxter, M. L. (2020)
Development, 147: dev187427

The Biophysics of Regenerative Repair Suggests New Perspectives on Biological Causation
Levin, M. (2020)
BioEssays, 42(2): 1900146

Morphological Coordination: A Common Ancestral Function Unifying Neural and Non-Neural Signaling
Fields, C., Bischof, J., and Levin, M. (2020)
Physiology, 35: 16-30  

Post-SSRI Sexual Dysfunction: a bioelectric mechanism?
Healy, D., Faber, C., Lapalme, J., and Levin, M. (2020)
Bioelectricity, 2(1): 7-13

Endogenous Bioelectrics in Development, Cancer, and Regeneration: Drugs and Bioelectronic Devices as Electroceuticals for Regenerative Medicine
Levin, M., Selberg, J., and Rolandi, M. (2019)
iScience, 22: 519–533  

Opinion: Interdisciplinary Approach Needed to Crack Morphogenesis
Finkelstein J., McLaughlin K., and Levin M. (2019)
The Scientist, December 2019

The Computational Boundary of a 'Self': Developmental Bioelectricity Drives Multicellularity and Scale-Free Cognition
Levin, M. (2019)
Frontiers in Psychology, 10: 2688

Managing Ideas, People, and Projects: Organizational Tools and Strategies for Researchers
Levin, S., and Levin, M. (2019)
iScience, 20: 278-291 

Bioelectric control of metastasis in solid tumors
Payne, S. L., Levin, M., and Oudin, M. J. (2019)
Bioelectricity, 1(3): 114-130  

Somatic Multicellularity as a Satisficing Solution to the Prediction-Error Minimization Problem
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2019)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 12(1): 119-132  

Bioelectrical controls of morphogenesis: from ancient mechanisms of cell coordination to biomedical opportunities
Whited, J., and Levin, M. (2019)
Current Opinion in Genetics & Development, 57: 61-69 

Reverse-engineering growth and form in Heidelberg
Levin, M., and Martinez-Arias, A. (2019)
Development, 146(14): dev177261

From non-excitable single-cell to multicellular bioelectrical states supported by ion channels and gap junction proteins: electrical potentials as distributed controllers
Cervera, C., Pai, V. P., Levin, M., and Mafe, S. (2019)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 149: 39-53  

On the generalization of habituation: how discrete biological systems respond to repetitive stimuli
Bonzanni, M., Rouleau, N., Levin, M., and Kaplan, D. (2019)
BioEssays, 41(7): 1900028 

The Cognitive Lens: a primer on conceptual tools for analysing information processing in developmental and regenerative morphogenesis
Manicka, S., and Levin, M. (2019)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 374(1774): 20180369  

A Call for a Better Understanding of Causation in Cell Biology
Bizzari, M., Brash, D., Briscoe, J., Grieneisen, V., Stern, C. D., and Levin, M. (2019)
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 20(5): 261-262

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Use During Pregnancy and Major Malformations: The Importance of Serotonin for Embryonic Development and the Effect of Serotonin Inhibition on the Occurrence of Malformations
Berard, A., Levin, M., Sadler, T., Healy, D. (2019)
Bioelectricity, 1(1): 18-29  

Planarian Regeneration as a Model of Anatomical Homeostasis: Recent Progress in Biophysical and Computational Approaches
Levin, M., Pietak, A., and Bischof, J. (2019)
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 87: 125-144

Multiscale Memory and Bioelectric Error Correction in the Cytoplasm-Cytoskeleton-Membrane System
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2018)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine, 10(2): e1410  

Perspective: the promise of multi-cellular engineered living systems
Kamm, R. D., Bashir, R., Arora, N., Dar, R. D., Gilette, M. U., Griffith, L. G., Kemp, M. L., Kinlaw, K., Levin, M., Martin, A. C., McDevitt, T. C., Nerem, R. M., Powers, M. J., Saif, T. A., Sharpe, J., Takayama, S., Takeuchi, S., Weiss, R., Ye, K., Yevick, H. G., and Zaman, M. H. (2018)
APL Bioengineering, 2(4): 040901  

Embodying Markov blankets. Comment on 'Answering Schrödinger's question: A free-energy formulation' by Maxwell James Désormeau Ramstead et al.
Pezzulo, G., and Levin, M. (2018)
Physics of Life Reviews, 24: 32-36  

Bioelectrical coupling in multicellular domains regulated by gap junctions: a conceptual approach
Cervera, J., Pietak, A., Levin, M., and Mafe, S. (2018)
Bioelectrochemistry, 123: 45-61 

Bioelectrical control of positional information in development and regeneration: a review of conceptual and computational advances
Pietak, A., and Levin, M. (2018)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 137: 52-68  

The Body Electric 2.0: Recent Advances in Developmental Bioelectricity for Regenerative and Synthetic Bioengineering
Mathews, J., and Levin, M. (2018)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 52: 134-144  

Avian models and the study of invariant asymmetry: how the chicken and the egg taught us to tell right from left
Monsoro-Burq, A.H., and Levin, M. (2018)
International Journal of Developmental Biology, 62(1-3): 63-77  

Are planaria individuals? What regenerative biology is telling us about the nature of multicellularity
Fields, C., and Levin, M. (2018)
Evolutionary Biology, 45(3): 237-247  

The bioelectric code: An ancient computational medium for dynamic control of growth and form
Levin, M., and Martyniuk, C. J. (2018)
BioSystems, 164: 76-93  

Booting up the organism during development: pre-behavioral functions of the vertebrate brain in guiding body morphogenesis
Herrera-Rincon, C., and Levin, M. (2018)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 11(1): e1433440 

Slime mould: the fundamental mechanisms of biological cognition
Vallverdu, J., Castro, O., Mayne, R., Talanov, M., Levin, M., Baluska, F., Gunji, Y., Dussutour, A., Zenil, H., and Adamatzky, A. (2018)
BioSystems, 165: 57-70

Ion channel and neurotransmitter modulators as electroceutical approaches to the control of cancer
Tuszynski, J., Tilli, T. M., and Levin, M. (2017)
Current Pharmaceutical Design, 23(32): 4827-4841

Bioelectric Signaling in Regeneration: Mechanisms of Ionic Controls of Growth and Form
McLaughlin, K. A., and Levin, M. (2017)
Developmental Biology, 433(2): 177-189 

Using optogenetics in vivo to stimulate regeneration
Adams, D. S., Tseng. A-S., and Levin, M. (2017)
in K. Appasani (Ed.), Optogenetics: From Neuronal Function to Mapping and Disease Biology, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, p. 66-76

Gap Junctional Signaling in Pattern Regulation: physiological network connectivity instructs growth and form
Mathews, J., and Levin, M. (2017)
Developmental Neurobiology, 77(5): 643-673 

Endogenous Bioelectric Signaling Networks: Exploiting Voltage Gradients for Control of Growth and Form
Levin, M., Pezzulo, G., and Finkelstein, J. M. (2017)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, 19: 353-87 

Reversals of bodies, brains, and behavior: quantitative analysis of laterality and its disturbance in model species
Blackiston, D. J., and Levin, M. (2017)
in L. J. Rogers and G. Vallortigara (Eds.), Lateralized Brain Functions: Methods in Human and Non-human Species, "Neuromethods", W. Walz (Ed.), 122: 667-694

Computing a worm: reverse-engineering planarian regeneration
Lobo, D., and Levin, M. (2017)
in Adamatzky, A. (Ed), Advances in Unconventional Computing. Emergence, Complexity and Computation, vol 23, Springer: Cham, pp. 637-654

Ahead of the Curve: Hidden Breakthroughs in the Biosciences, Vol 1
Levin, M., and Adams, D. S. (2016)
IOP Publishing: Bristol, UK

Introduction to provocative questions in Left-Right asymmetry
Levin, M., Klar, A. J. S., and Ramsdell, A. (2016)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 371(1710): 20150399 

From cytoskeletal dynamics to organ asymmetry: a nonlinear, regulative pathway underlies left-right patterning
McDowell, G., Rajadurai, S., and Levin, M. (2016)
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 371(1710): 20150409

Top-down models in biology: explanation and control of complex living systems above the molecular level
Pezzulo, G., and Levin, M. (2016)
Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 13(124): 20160555

Bioelectrical coordination of cell activity toward anatomical target states: an engineering perspective on regeneration
Herrera-Rincon, C., Guay, J., and Levin, M. (2016)
in D. Gardiner (Ed.), Regenerative Engineering and Developmental Biology: Principles and Applications, CRC Press: Boca Raton FL, Chapter 4, pp. 55-112

Vertically and horizontally-transmitted memories – the fading boundaries between regeneration and inheritance in planaria
Neuhof, M., Levin, M., and Rechavi, O. (2016)
Biology Open, 5(9): 1177-1188  

On Having No Head: Cognition throughout Biological Systems
Baluska, F., and Levin, M. (2016)
Frontiers in Psychology, 7: 902

Physiological Inputs Regulate Species-Specific Anatomy During Embryogenesis And Regeneration
Sullivan, K. G., Emmons-Bell, M., and Levin, M. (2016)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 9(4): e1192733

Telocytes in their context with other intercellular communication agents
Edelstein, L., Fuxe, K., Levin, M., Popescu, B., and Smythies, J. (2016)
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 55: 9-13

Physiological controls of large-scale patterning in planarian regeneration: a molecular and computational perspective on growth and form
Durant, F., Lobo, D., Hammelman, J., and Levin, M. (2016)
Regeneration, 3(2): 78-102

Re-membering the body: applications of computational neuroscience to the top-down control of regeneration of limbs and other complex organs
Pezzulo, G., and Levin, M. (2015)
Integrative Biology, 7(12): 1487-1517

Target morphology and cell memory: a model of regenerative pattern formation
Bessonov, N., Levin, M., Morozova, N., Reinberg, N., Tosenberger, A., and Volpert, V. (2015)
Neural Regeneration Research, 10(12): 1901-1905

The stability of memories during brain remodeling: A perspective
Blackiston, D. J., Shomrat, T., and Levin, M. (2015)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 8(5): e1073424 

Gap junctions: versatile mediators of long-range developmental signals
Levin, M. (2015)
The Node

Nerves read the electrical typography of their microenvironment in making growth decisions
Levin, M. (2015)
The Node

Knowing one's place: a free energy approach to pattern regulation
Friston, K., Levin, M., Sengupta B., and Pezzulo, G. (2015)
Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 12(105): 20141383

Molecular bioelectricity: how endogenous voltage potentials control cell behavior and instruct pattern regulation in vivo
Levin, M. (2014)
Molecular Biology of the Cell, 25(24): 3835-3850

Fishing on chips: up-and-coming technological advances in analysis of zebrafish and Xenopus embryos
Zhu, F., Skommer, J., Huang, Y., Akagi, J., Adams, D. S., Levin, M., Hall, C. J., Crosier, P. S., and Wlodkowic, D. (2014)
Cytometry A, 85(11): 921-932 

Bioelectrical mechanisms for programming growth and form: taming physiological networks for soft body robotics
Mustard, J., and Levin, M. (2014)
Soft Robotics, 1(3): 169-191 

Alteration of bioelectrically controlled processes in the embryo: a teratogenic mechanism for anticonvulsants
Hernandez-Diaz S., and Levin, M. (2014)
Reproductive Toxicology, 47: 111-114

Bioelectric controls of stem cell function
Pai, V., and Levin, M. (2014)
in F. Calegari and C. Waskow (Eds.), Stem Cells: From Basic Research to Therapy, Volume 1, CRC Press: Boca Raton FL, Chapter 5, pp. 106-145 

Endogenous bioelectrical networks store non-genetic patterning information during development and regeneration
Levin, M. (2014)
Journal of Physiology, 592(11): 2295-2305

A linear-encoding model explains the variability of the target morphology in regeneration
Lobo, D., Solano, M., Bubenik, G. A., and Levin, M. (2014)
Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 11(92): 20130918

Endogenous bioelectric cues as morphogenetic signals in vivo
Lobikin, M., and Levin, M. (2014)
in D. Fels, M. Cifra, and F. Scholkmann (Eds), Fields of the Cell, Research Signpost: Kerala, India, Chapter 15, pp. 283-302

It's Never Too Early to Get It Right: A Conserved Role for the Cytoskeleton in Left-Right Asymmetry
Vandenberg, L. N., Lemire, J. M, and Levin, M. (2013)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 6(6): e27155

Remembrance of Brains Past
Levin, M. (2013)
The Node

Endogenous voltage potentials and the microenvironment: bioelectric signals that reveal, induce, and normalize cancer
Chernet, B., and Levin, M. (2013)
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Oncology, Suppl 1: S1-002 

Reprogramming cells and tissue patterning via bioelectrical pathways: molecular mechanisms and biomedical opportunities
Levin, M. (2013)
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine, 5(6): 657-676 

A unified model for left-right asymmetry? Comparison and synthesis of molecular models of laterality
Vandenberg, L. N., and Levin, M. (2013)
Developmental Biology, 379(1): 1-15  

Endogenous Voltage Gradients as Mediators of Cell-Cell Communication: Strategies for Investigating Bioelectrical Signals During Pattern Formation
Adams, D. S., and Levin, M. (2013)
Cell and Tissue Research, 352(1): 95-122  

Cracking the bioelectric code: probing endogenous ionic controls of pattern formation
Tseng, A-S., and Levin, M. (2013)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 6(1): e22595

Transducing bioelectrical signals into epigenetic pathways during tadpole tail regeneration
Tseng, A.-S., and Levin, M. (2012)
Anatomical Record, 295(10): 1541-1551  

Morphogenetic fields in embryogenesis, regeneration, and cancer: non-local control of complex patterning
Levin, M. (2012)
BioSystems, 109(3): 243­-261

Molecular bioelectricity in developmental biology: new tools and recent discoveries
Levin, M. (2012)
BioEssays, 34(3): 205-217  

Regulation of Cell Behavior and Tissue Patterning by Bioelectrical Signals: challenges and opportunities for biomedical engineering
Levin, M., and Stevenson, C. (2012)
Annual Reviews in Biomedical Engineering, 14: 295-323 

Modeling planarian regeneration: a primer for reverse-engineering the worm
Lobo, D., Beane, W., and Levin, M. (2012)
PLoS Computational Biology, 8(4): e1002481

Endogenous Bioelectric Signals as Morphogenetic Controls of Development, Regeneration, and Neoplasm
Levin, M. (2011)
in C. Pullar (Ed.), The Physiology of Bioelectricity in Development, Tissue Regeneration, and Cancer, CRC Press: Boca Raton FL, pp. 39-89

The wisdom of the body: future techniques and approaches to morphogenetic fields in regenerative medicine, developmental biology, and cancer
Levin, M. (2011) ​​​​
Regenerative Medicine, 6(6): 667-673

Far from solved: a perspective on what we know about early mechanisms of left-right asymmetry
Vandenberg, L. N., and Levin, M. (2010) ​​​​
Developmental Dynamics, 239(12): 3131-3146

Is left-right asymmetry a form of planar cell polarity?
Aw, S., and Levin, M. (2009)
Development, 136(3): 355-366

Perspectives and open problems in the early phases of left-right patterning
Vandenberg, L., and Levin, M. (2009)
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 20(4): 456-463

Bioelectric mechanisms in regeneration: Unique aspects and future perspectives
Levin, M. (2009)
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 20(5): 543-556

Errors of Geometry: regeneration in a broader perspective
Levin, M. (2009)
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 20(6): 643-645

Regeneration: recent advances, major puzzles, and biomedical opportunities
Levin, M. (2009)
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 20(5): 515-516  

Role of membrane potential in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation
Sundelacruz, S., Levin, M., Levin M., and Kaplan, D. L. (2009)
Stem Cell Reviews, 5(3): 231-46

Bioelectric controls of cell proliferation: ion channels, membrane voltage, and the cell cycle
Blackiston, D. J., K. McLaughlin, and Levin, M. (2009)
Cell Cycle, 8(21): 3527-3536

The planarian regeneration model as a context for the study of drug effects and mechanisms
Oviedo, N., and Levin, M. (2008)
in R. B. Raffa & S. M. Rawls (Eds.), Planaria: A Model for Drug Action and Abuse, RG Landes Co.: Austin, pp. 95-104

Analysis of behavior in the planarian model
Nicolas, C. L., Abramson, C. I., and Levin, M. (2008)
in R. B. Raffa & S. M. Rawls (Eds.), Planaria: A Model for Drug Action and Abuse, RG Landes Co.: Austin, pp. 83-94

What's Left in Asymmetry?
Aw, S., and Levin, M. (2008)
Developmental Dynamics, 237(12): 3453-3464 

Planarians: a versatile and powerful model system for molecular studies of regeneration, adult stem cell regulation, aging, and behavior
Oviedo, N., Nicolas, C. L., Adams, D. S., and Levin, M. (2008)
in Emerging Model Organisms: A Laboratory Manual, Volume 1, Cold Spring Harbor Press: Cold Spring Harbor NY, Chapter 8

Tail regeneration in Xenopus laevis as a model for understanding tissue repair
Tseng, A-S., and Levin, M. (2008)
Journal of Dental Research, 87(9): 806-816

Left-right patterning from the inside out: widespread evidence for intracellular control
Levin, M., and Palmer, R. (2007)
BioEssays, 29(3): 271-287  

Gap junctional communication in morphogenesis
Levin, M. (2007)
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, 94(1-2): 186-206

Large-Scale Biophysics: Ion Flows and Regeneration
Levin, M. (2007)
Trends in Cell Biology, 17(6): 261-270 

What lies at the interface of regenerative medicine and developmental biology?
Ingber, D., and Levin, M. (2007)
Development, 134(14): 2541-2547  

Gap junctions provide new links in Left-Right patterning
Oviedo, N., and Levin, M. (2007)
Cell, 129(4): 645-647 

Of Minds and Embryos: Left-Right Asymmetry and the Serotonergic Controls of Pre-Neural Morphogenesis
Levin, M., Buznikov, G. A., and Lauder, J. M. (2006) ​​​​​
Developmental Neuroscience, 28(3): 171-185 

Is the Early Left-Right Axis like a Plant, a Kidney, or a Neuron? The Integration of Physiological Signals in Left-Right Asymmetry
Levin, M. (2006) ​​​​
Birth Defects Research (Part C), 78(3): 191-223  

Left-right asymmetry in embryonic development: a comprehensive review
Levin, M. (2005) ​​​​​
Mechanisms of Development, 122(1): 3-25  

The embryonic origins of left-right asymmetry
Levin, M. (2004) ​​​​​
Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 15(4): 197-206  

Early Patterning of the Left/Right Axis
Adams, D. S., and Levin, M. (2004)
in C. D. Stern (Ed.), Gastrulation: from cells to embryo, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: Long Island  NY, pp. 403-417

Bioelectromagnetics in morphogenesis
Levin, M. (2003) ​​​​​
Bioelectromagnetics, 24(5): 295-315

Motor protein control of ion flux is an early step in embryonic left-right asymmetry
Levin, M. (2003)
BioEssays, 25(10): 1002-1010

Isolation and community: A review of the role of gap-junctional communication in embryonic patterning
Levin, M. (2002)
Journal of Membrane Biology, 185(3): 177-192  

Left-Right asymmetry determination in vertebrates
Mercola, M., and Levin, M. (2001) ​​​​​
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, 17: 779-805  

Asymmetry of Body and Brain: Embryological and Twin Studies
Levin, M. (2001)
in N. Smelser and P. Baltes (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Elsevier: Oxford UK, pp. 853-859  

Twinning and embryonic left-right asymmetry
Levin, M. (1999) ​​​​​
Laterality, 4(3): 197-208  

Left-right asymmetry in animal embryogenesis
Levin, M. (1999)
in G. Palyi, C. Zucchi, and L. Caglioti (Eds.), Advances in Biochirality, Elsevier Science Ltd: Oxford UK, Chapter 12, pp. 137-152   

Endogenous electromagnetic fields and radiations in regeneration, development, and neoplasm
Levin, M., (1999)
Proceedings of the First World Congress on the Effects of Electricity and Magnetism in the Natural World, Madeira, Portugal

Left-Right asymmetry and the chick embryo
Levin, M. (1998)
Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 9(1): 67-76 

Two molecular models of initial left-right asymmetry generation
Levin, M., and Nascone, N. (1997)
Medical Hypotheses, 49(5): 429-435

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrate embryogenesis
Levin, M. (1997)
BioEssays, 19(4): 287-296  

Use of Genetic Algorithms to Solve Biomedical Problems
Levin, M. (1995)
M.D. Computing, 12(3): 193-198 

Current and potential applications of bioelectromagnetics in medicine
Levin, M. (1993)
Subtle Energies and Energetic Medicine Journal, 4(1): 77-87