Of Special Note

Embryos assist morphogenesis of others through calcium and ATP signaling mechanisms in collective teratogen resistance
Tung, A., Sperry, M., Clawson, W., Pavuluri, A., Bulatao, S., Yue, M., Flores, R. M., Pai, V. McMillen, P., Kuchling, F., and Levin, M. (2024)
Nature Communications, 15(1): 535

Motile Living Biobots Self-Construct from Adult Human Somatic Progenitor Seed Cells
Gumuskaya, G., Srivastava, P., Cooper, B. G., Lesser, H., Semegran, B., Garnier, S., and Levin, M. (2023)
Advanced Science, doi:10.1002/advs.202303575

Future Medicine: from molecular pathways to the collective intelligence of the body
Lagasse, E., and Levin, M. (2023)
Trends in Molecular Medicine, 29(9): 687-710

Bioelectric Networks: the cognitive glue enabling evolutionary scaling from physiology to mind
Levin, M. (2023)
Animal Cognition, doi:10.1007/s10071-023-01780-3

Cellular Signaling Pathways as Plastic, Proto-cognitive Systems: Implications for Biomedicine
Mathews, J., Chang, J., Devlin, L., and Levin, M. (2023)
Patterns, 4: 100737

Biological Robots: Perspectives on an Emerging Interdisciplinary Field
Blackiston, D., Kriegman, S., Bongard, J., and Levin, M. (2023)
Soft Robotics, 10(4): 694-686

Synthetic morphology with agential materials
Davies, J., and Levin, M. (2023)
Nature Reviews Bioengineering, 1(1): 46-59

Learning in Transcriptional Network Models: Computational Discovery of Pathway-level Memory and Effective Interventions
Biswas, S., Clawson, W., and Levin, M. (2023)
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 24(1): 285

HCN2 Channel-induced Rescue of Brain, Eye, Heart, and Gut Teratogenesis Caused by Nicotine, Ethanol, and Aberrant Notch Signaling
Pai, V. P., and Levin, M. (2022)
Wound Repair and Regeneration, 30(6): 6810706

Modular cognition
Levin, M., and Yuste, R. (2022)
Aeon Essays

Acute multidrug delivery via a wearable bioreactor facilitates long-term limb regeneration and functional recovery in adult Xenopus laevis
Murugan, N. J., Vigran, H. J., Miller, K., Golding, A., Pham, Q. L., Sperry, M., Rasmussen-Ivey, C., Kane, A. W., Kaplan, D. L., and Levin, M. (2022)
Science Advances, 8(4): abj2164

Mechanosensation Mediates Long-Range Spatial Decision-Making in an Aneural Organism
Murugan, N., Kaltman, D., Jin, H., Chien, M., Flores, R., Nguyen, C., Tuzoff, D., Minabutdinov, A., Kane, A., Novak, R., Ingber, D., and Levin, M. (2021)
Advanced Materials, 33(34): 2008161

Life, death, and self: Fundamental questions of primitive cognition viewed through the lens of body plasticity and synthetic organisms
Levin, M. (2021)
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 564: 114-133

Bioelectric Signaling: Reprogrammable Circuits Underlying Embryogenesis, Regeneration, and Cancer
Levin, M. (2021)
Cell, 184(8): 1971-1989

Living things are not (20th Century) machines: updating mechanism metaphors in light of the modern science of machine behavior
Bongard, J., and Levin, M. (2021)
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 9: 650726

A Scalable Pipeline for Designing Reconfigurable Organisms
Kriegman, S., Blackiston, D., Levin, M., and Bongard, J. (2020) 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 117(4): 1853-1859

How to understand cells, tissues and organisms as agents with agendas
Levin, M., and Dennett, D. C. (2020)
Aeon Essays

The Computational Boundary of a 'Self': Developmental Bioelectricity Drives Multicellularity and Scale-Free Cognition
Levin, M. (2019)
Frontiers in Psychology, 10: 2688

Regenerative Adaptation To Electrochemical Perturbation In Planaria: A Molecular Analysis Of Physiological Plasticity
Emmons-Bell, M., Durant, F., Tung, A., Pietak, A., Miller, K., Kane, A., Martyniuk, C. J., Davidian, D., Morokuma, J., and Levin, M. (2019)
iScience, 22: 147-165

L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel CaV1.2 regulates chondrogenesis during limb development
Atsuta, Y., Tomizwa, R. R., Levin, M., and Tabin, C. J. (2019)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 116(43): 21592-21601

Neural control of body-plan axis in regenerating planaria
Pietak, A., Bischof, J., LaPalme, J., Morokuma, J., and Levin, M. (2019)
PLOS Computational Biology, 15(4): e1006904

The role of early bioelectric signals in the regeneration of planarian anterior/posterior polarity
Durant, F., Bischof, J., Fields, C., Morokuma, J., LaPalme, J., Hoi, A., and Levin, M. (2019)
Biophysical Journal, 116(5): 948-961

Brief Local Application of Progesterone via a Wearable Bioreactor Induces Long-Term Regenerative Response in Adult Xenopus Hindlimb
Herrera-Rincon, C., Golding, A. S., Moran, K. M., Harrison, C., Martyniuk, C. J., Guay, J. A., Zaltsman, J., Carabello, H., Kaplan, D. L., and Levin, M. (2018)
Cell Reports, 25(6): 1593-1609

Cross-limb Communication During Xenopus Hind-limb Regenerative Response: Non-Local Bioelectric Injury Signals
Busse, S. M., McMillen, P. T., and Levin, M. (2018)
Development, 145(19): dev164210

HCN2 Rescues brain defects by enforcing endogenous voltage pre-patterns
Pai, V. P., Pietak, A., Willocq, V., Ye, B., Shi, N-Q., and Levin, M. (2018)
Nature Communications, 9(1): 998

Bioelectric Gene and Reaction Networks: Computational Modeling of Genetic, Biochemical, and Bioelectrical Dynamics in Pattern Regulation
Pietak, A. M., and Levin, M. (2017)
Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 14(134): 20170425

The brain is required for normal muscle and nerve patterning during early Xenopus development
Herrera-Rincon, C., Pai, V. P., Moran, K. M., Lemire, J. M., and Levin, M. (2017)
Nature Communications, 8(1): 587

Bioelectric regulation of innate immune system function in regenerating and intact Xenopus laevis
Paré, J-F., Martyniuk, C. J., and Levin, M. (2017)
NPJ Regenerative Medicine, 2: 15

Long-Term, Stochastic Editing of Regenerative Anatomy via Targeting Endogenous Bioelectric Gradients
Durant, F., Morokuma, J., Fields, C., Williams, K., Adams, D. S., and Levin, M. (2017)
Biophysical Journal, 112(10): 2231-2243

Endogenous Bioelectric Signaling Networks: Exploiting Voltage Gradients for Control of Growth and Form
Levin, M., Pezzulo, G., and Finkelstein, J. M. (2017)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, 19: 353-87

Serotonergic stimulation induces nerve growth and promotes visual learning via posterior eye grafts in a vertebrate model of induced sensory plasticity
Blackiston, D., Vien, K., and Levin, M. (2017)
NPJ Regenerative Medicine, 2: 8

Discovering novel phenotypes with automatically inferred dynamic models: partial melanocyte conversion in Xenopus
Lobo, D., Lobikin, M., and Levin, M. (2017)
Scientific Reports, 7: 41339

Exploring Instructive Physiological Signaling with the Bioelectric Tissue Simulation Engine (BETSE)
Pietak, A., and Levin, M. (2016)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 4: 55

On Having No Head: Cognition throughout Biological Systems
Baluska, F., and Levin, M. (2016)
Frontiers in Psychology, 7: 902

Physiological Inputs Regulate Species-Specific Anatomy During Embryogenesis and Regeneration
Sullivan, K. G., Emmons-Bell, M., and Levin, M. (2016)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 9(4): e1192733

Physiological controls of large-scale patterning in planarian regeneration: a molecular and computational perspective on growth and form
Durant, F., Lobo, D., Hammelman, J., and Levin, M. (2016)
Regeneration, 3(2): 78-102

Use of genetically encoded, light-gated ion translocators to control tumorigenesis
Chernet, B. T., Adams, D. S., Lobikin, M., and Levin, M. (2016)
Oncotarget, 7(15): 19575-19588

Bioelectric signaling via potassium channels: a mechanism for craniofacial dysmorphogenesis in KCNJ2-associated Andersen-Tawil Syndrome
Adams, D. S., Uzel, S. G. M., Akagi, J., Wlodkowic, D., Andreeva, V., Yelick, P. C., Devitt-Lee, A., Paré, J-F., and Levin, M. (2016)
Journal of Physiology, 594(12): 3245-3270

Re-membering the body: applications of computational neuroscience to the top-down control of regeneration of limbs and other complex organs
Pezzulo, G., and Levin, M. (2015)
Integrative Biology, 7(12): 1487-1517

Serotonergic regulation of melanocyte conversion: A bioelectrically regulated network for stochastic all-or-none hyperpigmentation
Lobikin, M., Lobo, D., Blackiston, D. J., Martyniuk, C. J., Tkachenko, E., and Levin, M. (2015)
Science Signaling, 8(397): ra99

Knowing one's place: a free energy approach to pattern regulation
Friston, K., Levin, M., Sengupta B., and Pezzulo, G. (2015)
Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 12(105): 20141383

Endogenous gradients of resting potential instructively pattern embryonic neural tissue via Notch signaling and regulation of proliferation
Pai, V., Lemire, J. M., Paré, J-F., Lin, G., Chen, Y., and Levin, M. (2015)
Journal of Neuroscience, 35(10): 4366-4385

A novel method for inducing nerve growth via modulation of host resting potential
Blackiston, D., Anderson, G. M., Rahman, N., Bieck, C., and Levin, M. (2015)
Neurotherapeutics, 12(1): 170-184

Molecular bioelectricity: how endogenous voltage potentials control cell behavior and instruct pattern regulation in vivo
Levin, M. (2014)
Molecular Biology of the Cell, 25(24): 3835-3850

Transmembrane voltage potential of somatic cells controls oncogene-mediated tumorigenesis at long-range
Chernet, B., and Levin, M. (2014)
Oncotarget, 5(10): 3287-3306

Cracking the bioelectric code: probing endogenous ionic controls of pattern formation
Tseng, A-S., and Levin, M. (2013)
Communicative & Integrative Biology, 6(1): e22595

Light-activation of the Archaerhodopsin H+ pump reverses age-dependent loss of vertebrate regeneration: sparking system-level controls in vivo
Adams, D. S., Tseng, A-S. and Levin, M. (2013)
Biology Open, 2(3): 306-313

Early nonciliary role for microtubule proteins in left–right patterning is conserved across kingdoms
Lobikin, M., Wang, G., Xu, J.-S., Hsieh, Y.-W., Chuang, C.-F., Lemire, J. M., and Levin, M. (2012)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 109(31): 12586-12591

Morphogenetic fields in embryogenesis, regeneration, and cancer: non-local control of complex patterning
Levin, M. (2012)
BioSystems, 109(3): 243­-261

Transmembrane voltage potential controls embryonic eye patterning in Xenopus laevis
Pai, V., Aw, S., Shomrat, T., Lemire, J. M., and Levin, M. (2012)
Development, 139(2): 313-323

Molecular bioelectricity in developmental biology: new tools and recent discoveries
Levin, M. (2012)
BioEssays, 34(3): 205-217

Transmembrane potential of GlyCl-expressing instructor cells induces a neoplastic-like conversion of melanocytes via a serotonergic pathway
Blackiston, D., Adams, D. S., Lemire, J. M., Lobikin, M., and Levin, M. (2011)
Disease Models and Mechanisms, 4(1): 67-85

A chemical genetics approach reveals H,K-ATPase-mediated membrane voltage is required for planarian head regeneration
Beane, W. S., Morokuma, J., Adams, D. S., and Levin, M. (2011) ​​​​​
Chemistry & Biology, 18(1): 77-89

The wisdom of the body: future techniques and approaches to morphogenetic fields in regenerative medicine, developmental biology, and cancer
Levin, M. (2011) ​​​​
Regenerative Medicine, 6(6): 667-673

Long-range Neural and Gap Junction Protein-mediated Cues Control Polarity During Planarian Regeneration
Oviedo, N. J., Morokuma, J., Walentek, P., Kema, I. P., Gu, M. B., Ahn, J. M., Hwang, J. S., Gojobori, T., and Levin, M. (2010)
Developmental Biology, 339(1): 188-199

Induction of vertebrate regeneration by a transient sodium current
Tseng, A-S., Beane, W. S., Lemire, J. M., Masi, A., and Levin, M. (2010)
Journal of Neuroscience, 30(39): 13192-13200

Far from solved: a perspective on what we know about early mechanisms of left-right asymmetry
Vandenberg, L. N., and Levin, M. (2010) ​​​​
Developmental Dynamics, 239(12): 3131-3146

Is left-right asymmetry a form of planar cell polarity?
Aw, S., and Levin, M. (2009)
Development, 136(3): 355-366

Bioelectric mechanisms in regeneration: Unique aspects and future perspectives
Levin, M. (2009)
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 20(5): 543-556

Large-Scale Biophysics: Ion Flows and Regeneration
Levin, M. (2007)
Trends in Cell Biology, 17(6): 261-270

Asymmetries in H+/K+-ATPase and cell membrane potentials comprise a very early step in left-right patterning
Levin, M., Thorlin, T., Robinson, K., Nogi, T., and Mercola, M. (2002)
Cell, 111(1): 77-89

Two molecular models of initial left-right asymmetry generation
Levin, M., and Nascone, N. (1997)
Medical Hypotheses, 49(5): 429-435

A molecular pathway determining left-right asymmetry in chick embryogenesis
Levin, M., Johnson, R. L., Stern, C. D., Kuehn, M., and Tabin, C. (1995)
Cell, 82(5): 803-814