Synthetic Morphology

Motile Living Biobots Self-Construct from Adult Human Somatic Progenitor Seed Cells
Gumuskaya, G., Srivastava, P., Cooper, B. G., Lesser, H., Semegran, B., Garnier, S., and Levin, M. (2023)
Advanced Science, doi:10.1002/advs.202303575

Endless forms most beautiful 2.0: teleonomy and the bioengineering of chimaeric and synthetic organisms
Clawson, W. P., and Levin, M. (2023)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 139(4): 457-486

Biological Robots: Perspectives on an Emerging Interdisciplinary Field
Blackiston, D., Kriegman, S., Bongard, J., and Levin, M. (2023)
Soft Robotics, 10(4): 694-686

Kinematic self-replication in reconfigurable organisms
Kriegman, S., Blackiston, D., Levin, M., and Bongard, J. (2021)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 118(49): e2112672118

Life, death, and self: Fundamental questions of primitive cognition viewed through the lens of body plasticity and synthetic organisms
Levin, M. (2021)
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 564: 114-133

Synthetic living machines: A new window on life
Ebrahimkhani, M., and Levin, M. (2021)
iScience, 24(5): 102505

Gene Regulatory Networks Exhibit Several Kinds of Memory: Quantification of Memory in Biological and Random Transcriptional Networks
Biswas, S., Manicka, S., Hoel, E., and Levin, M. (2021)
iScience, 24(3): 102131

A cellular platform for the development of synthetic living machines
Blackiston, D., Lederer, E., Kriegman, S., Garnier, S., Bongard, J., and Levin, M. (2021)
Science Robotics, 6(52): eabf1571

Unlimited plasticity of embodied, cognitive subjects: a new playground for the UAL framework
Levin, M. (2021)
Biology and Philosophy, 36(2): 17

Applications and ethics of computer-designed organisms
Levin, M., Bongard, J., and Lunshof, J. E. (2020)
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 21(11): 655–656

A Scalable Pipeline for Designing Reconfigurable Organisms
Kriegman, S., Blackiston, D., Levin, M., and Bongard, J. (2020) 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 117(4): 1853-1859